Effectiveness of Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Preventing Crashes and Injuries in Left Turn Across Path / Opposite Direction Crashes in the United States

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Virginia Tech


Intersection crashes represent one-fifth of all police reported traffic crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States each year. Active safety systems have the potential to reduce crashes and injuries across all crash modes by partially or fully controlling the vehicle in the event that a crash is imminent. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate crash and injury reduction in a future United States fleet equipped with intersection advanced driver assistance systems (I-ADAS). In order to evaluate this, injury risk modeling was performed. The dataset used to evaluate injury risk was the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS). An injured occupant was defined as vehicle occupant who experienced an injury of maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 2 or greater, or who were fatally injured. This was referred to as MAIS2+F injury. Cases were selected in which front-row occupants of late-model vehicles were exposed to a frontal, near-, or far-side crash.

Logistic regression was used to develop an injury model with occupant, vehicle, and crash parameters as predictor variables. For the frontal and near-side impact models, New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test results were used as a predictor variable. This work quantitatively described the injury risk for a wide variety of crash modes, informing effectiveness estimates.

This work reconstructed 501 vehicle-to-vehicle left turn across path / opposite direction (LTAP/OD) crashes in the United States which had been originally investigated in NMVCCS. The performance of thirty different I-ADAS system variations was evaluated for each crash. These variations were the combinations of five Time to Collision (TTC) activation thresholds, three latency times, and two different intervention types (automated braking and driver warning). In addition, two sightline assumptions were modeled for each crash: one where the turning vehicle was visible long before the intersection, and one where the turning vehicle was only visible after entering the intersection. For resimulated crashes which were not avoided by I-ADAS, a new crash delta-v was computed for each vehicle. The probability of MAIS2+F injury to each front row occupant was computed.

Depending on the system design, sightline assumption, I-ADAS variation, and fleet penetration, an I-ADAS system that automatically applies emergency braking could avoid 18%-84% of all LTAP/OD crashes. An I-ADAS system which applies emergency braking could prevent 44%-94% of front row occupants from receiving MAIS2+F injuries. I-ADAS crash and injured person reduction effectiveness was higher when both vehicles were equipped with I-ADAS. This study presented the simulated effectiveness of a hypothetical intersection active safety system on real crashes which occurred in the United States, showing strong potential for these systems to reduce crashes and injuries.

However, this crash and injury reduction effectiveness made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. In order to evaluate I-ADAS effectiveness in the United States fleet the proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions. The number of potential LTAP/OD conflicts was modeled as increasing year over year due to a predicted increase in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT). Finally, the combined effect of these changes was used to predict the number of LTAP/OD crashes each year from 2019 to 2060. In 2060, we predicted 70,439 NMVCCS-type LTAP/OD crashes would occur. The predicted number of MAIS2+F injured front row occupants in 2060 was 3,836. This analysis shows that even in the long-term fleet penetration of Intersection Active Safety Systems, many injuries will continue to occur. This underscores the importance of maintaining passive safety performance in future vehicles.



ADAS, Active Safety, I-ADAS, injury risk modeling, NCAP, LTAP/OD