Modeling the Effect of Particle Diameter and Density on Dispersion in an Axisymmetric Turbulent Jet


TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Creating effective models predicting particle entrainment behavior within axisymmetric turbulent jets is of significant interest to many areas of study. Research into multiphase flows within turbulent structures has primarily focused on specific geometries for a target application, with little interest in generalized cases. In this research, the entrainment characteristics of various particle sizes and densities were simulated by determining the distribution of particles across a surface after the particles had fallen out of entrainment within the jet core. The model was based on an experimental set-up created by Lieutenant Zachary Robertson, which consists of a particle injection system designed to load particles into a fully developed pipe [1]. This pipe flow then exits into an otherwise quiescent environment (created within a wind tunnel), creating an axisymmetric turbulent round jet. The particles injected were designed to test the effect of both particle size and density on the entrainment characteristics.

The data generated by the model indicated that, for all particle types tested, the distribution across the bottom surface of the wind tunnel followed a standard Gaussian distribution. Experimentation yielded similar results, with the exception that some of the experimental trials showed distributions with significantly non-zero skewness. The model produced results with the highest correlation to experimentation for cases with the smallest Stokes number (small size/density), indicating that the trajectory of particles with the highest level of interaction with the flow were the easiest to predict. This was contrasted by the high Stokes number particles which appear to follow standard rectilinear motion.



Entrainment, Dispersion, Computational fluid dynamics, Multiphase Flow, Turbulent Jet