PID-Based Longitudinal Control of Platooning Trucks

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This article focuses on the development and assessment of a PID-based computationally cost-efficient longitudinal control algorithm for platooning trucks. The study employs a linear controller with a nested architecture, wherein the inner loop regulates relative velocities while the outer loop governs inter-vehicle distances within platoon vehicles. The design of the proposed PID controller entails a comprehensive focus on system identification, particularly emphasizing actuation dynamics. The simulation framework used in this study has been established through the integration of TruckSim® and Simulink®, resulting in a co-simulation environment. Simulink® serves as the platform for control action implementation, while TruckSim® simulates the vehicle’s dynamic behavior, thereby closely replicating real world conditions. The significant effort in fine-tuning the PID controller is described in detail, including the system identification of the linearized longitudinal dynamic model of the truck. The implementation is followed by an extensive series of simulation tests, systematically evaluating the controller’s performance, stability, and robustness. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in various leading truck operational scenarios. Furthermore, the controller’s robustness to large fluctuations in road grade and payload weight, which is commonly experienced in commercial vehicles, is evaluated. The simulation results indicate the controller’s ability to compensate for changes in both road grade and payload. Additionally, an initial assessment of the controller’s efficiency is conducted by comparing the commanded control efforts (total torque on wheels) along with the total fuel consumed. This initial analysis suggests that the controller exhibits minimal aggressive tendencies.




Shaju, A.; Southward, S.; Ahmadian, M. PID-Based Longitudinal Control of Platooning Trucks. Machines 2023, 11, 1069.