High Efficiency DC-DC Converter for EV Battery Charger Using Hybrid Resonant and PWM Technique


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Virginia Tech


The battery charger plays an important role in the development of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).This thesis focuses on the DC-DC converter for high voltage battery charger and is divided into four chapters. The background related to EV battery charger is introduced, and the topologies of isolated DC-DC converter possibly applied in battery charge are sketched in Chapter 1. Since the EV battery charger is high voltage high power, the phase-shifted full bridge and LLC converters, which are popularly used in high power applications, are discussed in detail in Chapter 2. They are generally considered as high efficiency, high power density and high reliability, but their prominent features are also limited in certain range of operation. To make full use of the advantages and to avoid the limitation of the phase-shifted full bridge and LLC converters, a novel hybrid resonant and PWM converter combining resonant LLC half-bridge and phase shifted full-bridge topology is proposed and is described in Chapter 3. The converter achieves high efficiency and true soft switching for the entire operation range, which is very important for high voltage EV battery charger application. A 3.4 kW hardware prototype has been designed, implemented and tested to verify that the proposed hybrid converter truly avoids the disadvantages of LLC and phase-shifted full bridge converters while maintaining their advantages. In this proposed hybrid converter, the utilization efficiency of the auxiliary transformer is not that ideal. When the duty cycle is large, LLC converter charges one of the capacitors but the energy stored in the capacitor has no chance to be transferred to the output, resulting in the low utilization efficiency of the auxiliary transformer. To utilize the auxiliary transformer fully while keeping all the prominent features of the previous hybrid converter in Chapter 3, an improved hybrid resonant and PWM converter is proposed in Chapter 4. The idea has been verified with simulations. The last chapter is the conclusion which summaries the key features and findings of the two proposed hybrid converters.



LLC Resonant Converter, Hybrid Resonant and PWM Converter, Phase-shifted Full Bridge Converter, DC-DC Converter, Electric Vehicle Battery Charger