Detailed Modeling of Pneumatic Braking in Long Combination Vehicles


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SAE International


A detailed model for pneumatic S-cam drum brake systems is developed and integrated into a multibody dynamic model for a 33-ft A-double long combination vehicle (LCV). The model, developed in TruckSim®, is used to study the dynamics of LCVs during straight-line braking at various speeds. It includes the response delay in braking that occurs from the time of application to when the brakes are applied at the drum for all axles. Additionally, the model incorporates an accurate characterization of brake torque versus chamber pressure at different speeds, along with the anti-lock brake system (ABS) dynamics, to yield an accurate prediction of the vehicle's deceleration during braking. The modeling results are compared with test results at speeds ranging from 20 mph to 65 mph on dry pavement. A close match between the model's prediction and test results is observed. The model is then used to perform a parametric study that evaluates braking distance and time for different pavement coefficients of friction (μp) at various speeds. The results indicate a distinct nonlinear relationship between μp and braking dynamics. At various μp, stopping time increases linearly with speed, as perhaps expected. Stopping distance, however, increases nonlinearly for a larger μp and linearly for a smaller μp versus speed. At a given speed, stopping time increases nonlinearly with a reduced μp, whereas stopping distance increases relatively linearly with a reduced μp.