Hydrogen Peroxide, Povidone-Iodine and Chlorhexidine Fail to Eradicate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm from Infected Implant Materials

Abstract

Hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine are antiseptics that are commonly added to irrigants to either prevent or treat infection. There are little clinical data available that demonstrate efficacy of adding antiseptics to irrigants in the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection after biofilm establishment. The objective of the study was to assess the bactericidal activity of the antiseptics on S. aureus planktonic and biofilm. For planktonic irrigation, S. aureus was exposed to different concentrations of antiseptics. S. aureus biofilm was developed by submerging a Kirschner wire into normalized bacteria and allowing it to grow for forty-eight hours. The Kirschner wire was then treated with irrigation solutions and plated for CFU analysis. Hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine were bactericidal against planktonic bacteria with over a 3 log reduction (p < 0.0001). Unlike cefazolin, the antiseptics were not bactericidal (less than 3 log reduction) against biofilm bacteria but did have a statistical reduction in biofilm as compared to the initial time point (p < 0.0001). As compared to cefazolin treatment alone, the addition of hydrogen peroxide or povidone-iodine to cefazolin treatment only additionally reduced the biofilm burden by less than 1 log. The antiseptics demonstrated bactericidal properties with planktonic S. aureus; however, when used to irrigate S. aureus biofilms, these antiseptics were unable to decrease biofilm mass below a 3 log reduction, suggesting that S. aureus biofilm has a tolerance to antiseptics. This information should be considered when considering antibiotic tolerance in established S. aureus biofilm treatment.

Description

Keywords

Citation

Parker, D.M.; Koch, J.A.; Gish, C.G.; Brothers, K.M.; Li, W.; Gilbertie, J.; Rowe, S.E.; Conlon, B.P.; Byrapogu, V.K.C.; Urish, K.L. Hydrogen Peroxide, Povidone-Iodine and Chlorhexidine Fail to Eradicate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm from Infected Implant Materials. Life 2023, 13, 1230.