Evaluation of integrated pest and disease management module for shallots in Tamil Nadu, India - A farmer’s participatory approach
Efforts made to evaluate the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) module for shallots through Farmer’s Participatory Approach in Tamil Nadu, India, are discussed. The shallot IPM module with special emphasis on nonchemical management components viz., healthy seed bulb selection, seed treatment with bio-pesticides, soil application of bio-pesticides and bio-inputs, growing of barrier crops, installation of sticky traps and pheromone traps, spray application of bio-pesticides, and need-based application of synthetic pesticides were evaluated in large fields in farmers’ holdings in six locations during 2009 –2012. In all the locations, the IPM fields registered reduced incidence of the major insect pests and diseases viz. onion thrips (Thrips tabaci L.) (5.99 thrips/plant), leafminer (Liriomyza sp.) (12.59% damage), tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura F.) (3.51% damage), basal rot (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae W. C. Snyder and H. N. Hansen) (3.50% incidence) and purple blotch (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.) (24.50 Percent Disease Index) compared with farmer’s approach registering higher incidence of onion thrips (11.58 thrips/plant), leafminer (19.65% damage), tobacco cutworm (6.22% damage), basal rot (8.14% incidence), and purple blotch (51.6 Percent Disease Index). The IPM fields registered a higher mean bulb yield of 13.81 t/ha with a cost:benefit ratio of 1:3.05 compared with 10.69 t/ha with a cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.47 in farmer’s approach. Field days, exhibitions, and demonstrations were organized in all the locations to popularize the shallot IPM module among the growers.