Filler effects in resole adhesive formulations


TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


This was a university/industry research cooperation with focus on how organic fillers affect the properties of phenol-formaldehyde resole (PF) resins that are formulated for veneer applications like plywood and laminated veneer lumber. The PF formulations studied in this work used fillers that were derived from walnut shell (Juglans regia), alder bark (Alnus rubra), almond shell (Prunus dulcis), and corn cob (furfural production) residue.

The chemical composition of all fillers was measured and compared to published data. The basic rheological behavior of the formulations was determined and used to develop an adhesive tack measurement based upon lubrication theory. In this work, the probe-tack test was adapted to a typical stress-controlled rheometer by using the normal force and displacement system to compress the adhesive between parallel plates. By employing a simple power law to describe the complex rheology of adhesives and a lubrication approximation for the viscous force, squeeze flow of adhesives between two flat, impermeable steels and between steel and porous wood can be successfully modeled. However, deviations from theory were encountered as related to the method of adhesive application. Both meniscus force in consequence of the surface tension of adhesive pull around the edge of plate and viscous force due to the viscosity of adhesive operate inside the meniscus when adhesive was spread on the entire surface by a hard roller. manufacture where viscosity and surface tension effects were both involved. Last but not Such is probably the case when wood veneer is cold-pressed (pre-pressed) in plywood least, rheological behavior and alkali modification of wheat flour was determined by rheological and infrared studies, respectively.



organic filler, phenol formaldehyde, rheology, adhesive tack, wheat flour