Psychosocial Factors Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms One Year Postpartum


Pregnancy carries substantial risk for developing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), with potential lifelong impacts on bladder health. Little is known about modifiable psychosocial factors that may influence the risk of postpartum LUTSs. We examined associations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and postpartum LUTSs, and the moderating effects of perceived social support, using data from a cohort study of Expect With Me group prenatal care (n = 462). One year postpartum, 40.3% participants reported one or more LUTS. The most frequent LUTS was daytime frequency (22.3%), followed by urinary incontinence (19.5%), urgency (18.0%), nocturia (15.6%), and bladder pain (6.9%). Higher odds of any LUTS were associated with greater depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.11) and perceived stress (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Higher perceived social support was associated with lower odds of any LUTS (AOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99). Perceived social support mitigated the adverse effects of depressive symptoms (interaction AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99) and perceived stress (interaction AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) on experiencing any LUTS. Greater depressive symptoms and perceived stress may increase the likelihood of experiencing LUTSs after childbirth. Efforts to promote bladder health among postpartum patients should consider psychological factors and social support.




Cunningham, S.D.; Carandang, R.R.; Boyd, L.M.; Lewis, J.B.; Ickovics, J.R.; Rickey, L.M. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms One Year Postpartum. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 21, 40.