Multi-functional Holographic Acoustic Lenses for Modulating Low- to High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

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Virginia Tech


Focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging technology, and it plays an essential role in clinical and contactless acoustic energy transfer applications. These applications have critical criteria for the acoustic pressure level, the creation of complex pressure patterns, spatial management of the complicated acoustic field, and the degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focal areas, which have not been met to date. This dissertation focuses on introducing experimentally validated novel numerical approaches, optimization algorithms, and experimental techniques to fill existing knowledge gaps and enhance the functionality of holographic acoustic lenses (HALs) with an emphasis on applications related to biomedical-focused ultrasound and ultrasonic energy transfer. This dissertation also aims to investigate the dynamics of nonlinear acoustic beam shaping in engineered HALs. First, We will introduce 3D-printed metallic acoustic holographic mirrors for precise spatial manipulation of reflected ultrasonic waves. Optimization algorithms and experimental validations are presented for applications like contactless acoustic energy transfer. Furthermore, a portion of the present work focuses on designing holographic lenses in strongly heterogeneous media for ultrasound focusing and skull aberration compensation in transcranial-focused ultrasound. To this end, we collaborated with the Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics Department as well as Fralin Biomedical Research Institute to implement acoustic lenses in transcranial neuromodulation, targeting to improve the quality of life for patients with brain disease by minimizing the treatment time and optimizing the ultrasonic energy into the region of interest. We will also delve into the nonlinear regime for High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) applications, this study is structured under three objectives: (1) establishing nonlinear acoustic-elastodynamics models to represent the dynamics of holographic lenses under low- to high-intensity acoustic fields; (2) validating and leveraging the resulting models for high-fidelity lens designs used in generating specified nonlinear ultrasonic fields of complex spatial distribution; (3) exploiting new physical phenomena in acoustic holography. The performed research in this dissertation yields experimentally proven mathematical frameworks for extending the functionality of holographic lenses, especially in transcranial-focused ultrasound and nonlinear wavefront shaping, advancing knowledge in the burgeoning field of the inverse issue of nonlinear acoustics, which has remained underdeveloped for many years.



Acoustic holograms, Focused ultrasound, Acoustic holography, Metamaterials, Nonlinear ultrasound, High-intensity focused ultrasound