Multi-functional Holographic Acoustic Lenses for Modulating Low- to High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

dc.contributor.authorSallam, Ahmeden
dc.contributor.committeechairShahab, Shimaen
dc.contributor.committeememberErturk, Alperen
dc.contributor.committeememberLi, Suyien
dc.contributor.committeememberTian, Zhenhuaen
dc.contributor.committeememberVlaisavljevich, Elien
dc.contributor.departmentMechanical Engineeringen
dc.description.abstractFocused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging technology, and it plays an essential role in clinical and contactless acoustic energy transfer applications. These applications have critical criteria for the acoustic pressure level, the creation of complex pressure patterns, spatial management of the complicated acoustic field, and the degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focal areas, which have not been met to date. This dissertation focuses on introducing experimentally validated novel numerical approaches, optimization algorithms, and experimental techniques to fill existing knowledge gaps and enhance the functionality of holographic acoustic lenses (HALs) with an emphasis on applications related to biomedical-focused ultrasound and ultrasonic energy transfer. This dissertation also aims to investigate the dynamics of nonlinear acoustic beam shaping in engineered HALs. First, We will introduce 3D-printed metallic acoustic holographic mirrors for precise spatial manipulation of reflected ultrasonic waves. Optimization algorithms and experimental validations are presented for applications like contactless acoustic energy transfer. Furthermore, a portion of the present work focuses on designing holographic lenses in strongly heterogeneous media for ultrasound focusing and skull aberration compensation in transcranial-focused ultrasound. To this end, we collaborated with the Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics Department as well as Fralin Biomedical Research Institute to implement acoustic lenses in transcranial neuromodulation, targeting to improve the quality of life for patients with brain disease by minimizing the treatment time and optimizing the ultrasonic energy into the region of interest. We will also delve into the nonlinear regime for High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) applications, this study is structured under three objectives: (1) establishing nonlinear acoustic-elastodynamics models to represent the dynamics of holographic lenses under low- to high-intensity acoustic fields; (2) validating and leveraging the resulting models for high-fidelity lens designs used in generating specified nonlinear ultrasonic fields of complex spatial distribution; (3) exploiting new physical phenomena in acoustic holography. The performed research in this dissertation yields experimentally proven mathematical frameworks for extending the functionality of holographic lenses, especially in transcranial-focused ultrasound and nonlinear wavefront shaping, advancing knowledge in the burgeoning field of the inverse issue of nonlinear acoustics, which has remained underdeveloped for many years.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralUltrasonic waves are sound waves that have frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. The versatility and non-invasive nature of ultrasonic waves make them a valuable tool in numerous scientific, medical, and industrial applications. In healthcare, ultrasonic waves are employed in diagnostic imaging techniques, such as ultrasound scans, to create images of internal body structures. Ultrasonic waves are also used for non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials, detecting flaws or cracks within structures without causing any damage. Furthermore, this technology finds applications in the field of material science for the manipulation of particles and in biomedical research for drug delivery systems. Focused ultrasound sound is an emerging non-invasive therapeutic modality that uses focused ultrasound waves to target tissue within the body without damaging the surrounding tissue. This technology allows for precise delivery of ultrasound energy to a specific region, where it can induce various desired therapeutic effects depending on the targeting location and parameters. Therapeutic focused ultrasound has the advantage of being non-invasive, reducing the risks and recovery time associated with traditional surgery. It can be precisely controlled and monitored in real-time with imaging techniques such as ultrasound or MRI, ensuring the targeted treatment of pathological tissues while sparing healthy ones. Applications of therapeutic are broad and include tumor ablation, facilitation of drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, relief of chronic pain, and treatment of essential tremor and other neurological disorders. The domain of therapeutic focused ultrasound is continually advancing, driven by research that seeks to extend its applications. Recent developments in acoustic engineering and 3D printing have led to the creation of acoustic holograms, or holographic acoustic lenses, which allow for more refined control over the spatial structure of the acoustic field. These technological advancements hold the promise of enhancing FUS by improving the accuracy of acoustic field localization and providing a more cost-effective solution compared to conventional systems like phased array transducers. However, the accuracy and applicability of existing models and techniques are constrained by assumptions, including the uniformity of the propagation medium and the linearity of the acoustic field, which limits the functionality and restricts the potential applications of acoustic holograms. In this dissertation, we present novel numerical techniques, algorithms, and proof-of-concept experiments to fill those knowledge gaps and expand the functionality of acoustic holograms in crucial applications.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectAcoustic hologramsen
dc.subjectFocused ultrasounden
dc.subjectAcoustic holographyen
dc.subjectNonlinear ultrasounden
dc.subjectHigh-intensity focused ultrasounden
dc.titleMulti-functional Holographic Acoustic Lenses for Modulating Low- to High-Intensity Focused Ultrasounden
dc.typeDissertationen Engineeringen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen of Philosophyen


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