Determining ideal staple size for small intestinal surgery in cats

dc.contributor.authorHiebert, Elizabeth C.en
dc.contributor.committeechairDemonaco, Stefanieen
dc.contributor.committeememberLanz, Otto I.en
dc.contributor.committeememberSawyere Hansford, Dominique M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberLeRoith, Tanyaen
dc.contributor.committeememberBarry, Sabrina L.en
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical and Veterinary Sciencesen
dc.description.abstractBackground: The use of stapling equipment for intestinal surgery in cats is rarely reported, and appropriate staple sizes for cat intestine are unknown. Objective: To determine staple cartridge sizes for thoracoabdominal (TA) and endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis (EndoGIA) that will simultaneously prevent leakage of small intestinal contents while also allowing for sufficient vascular permeability past the staple lines for intestinal healing. Methods: Two sizes of EndoGIA cartridges (2.0/2.5/3.0mm and 3.0/3.5/4.0mm) and two sizes of TA cartridges (2.5mm and 3.5mm), applied in a transverse manner across fresh cadaveric cat jejunum, were evaluated via intestinal burst pressure testing for maximum intraluminal pressure prior to leaking, and via infusion of an intravascular dye at normal arterial pressures to determine percentage of vascular patency past the staple lines. Vascular patency was compared not only from pre-and post-staple segments of the same intestinal sample, but also EndoGIA vascular patency was evaluated against TA vascular patency. Results: Two cats met study criteria. All samples had intraluminal burst pressures over twice the chosen minimum (of 30mmHg). Vascular patency post- staple line ranged from 0-90.8%, with the most consistently high numbers noted with the TA 3.5mm cartridges. No EndoGIA cartridge had a post- staple line vascular patency higher than 31.1%, and no intravascular dye was noted in any post- staple line sample in the EndoGIA 2.0/2.5/3.0mm group. Conclusions: While statistical analysis of the dataset was unable to be performed due to low numbers of samples for comparison, both intestinal intraluminal burst pressure trends and intravascular dye patterns suggested both the TA 3.5mm cartridge and (to a lesser extent) the 3.0/3.5/4.0mm EndoGIA cartridge could provide the ideal combination of intraluminal seal without restriction of vascular access for healing. The intravascular dye infusion technique, developed during this research, shows promise as a future instrument to determine vascular patterns around intestinal implants in cadaveric cat specimens.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralDespite the regularity of feline small intestinal surgery, few reports exist of stapled anastomoses in cats, in part due to stapler size limitations. However, the recently developed endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis (EndoGIA) stapler shows promise as a future surgical tool for cats because it fits into cat intestine. In dogs, 3.5mm staples are often chosen for intestinal surgery; however, dog intestine is considerably thicker than cat intestine. The study goal was to evaluate not only intestinal burst pressures (the pressure at which repaired intestine leaks), but also the ability of fluids to flow through blood vessels that cross the staple lines of four stapler cartridge types from two staple lineages (EndoGIA 2.0/2.5/3.0mm, EndoGIA 3.0/3.5/4.0mm, TA 2.5mm, and TA 3.5mm). The central hypothesis was twofold. First, smaller stapler cartridge sizes (the EndoGIA 2.0/2.5/3.0mm and TA 2.5mm) would have higher intraluminal burst pressures when compared to the larger sizes (the EndoGIA 3.0/3.5/4.0mm). Second, larger stapler cartridges (the EndoGIA 3.0/3.5/4.0mm and the TA 3.5mm) would allow for increased flow of fluids in blood vessels past the stapler lines compared to the smaller cartridges (the EndoGIA 2.0/2.5/3.0mm and the TA 2.5mm). Two cats were included in the study. Trends in the data suggested that all components of the hypothesis might be proven with further data. However, due to the low number of cats acquired during the study period, the hypotheses could not be verified with statistics. The dye infusion technique to evaluate flow of fluids in blood vessels, developed during this research, shows promise as a future instrument to determine vascular patterns around intestinal implants. Future research should focus on acquiring more cats to have the ability able to perform statistical analyses (and prove the hypothesis), before proceeding with additional related studies.en
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectSmall Intestineen
dc.subjectBurst Pressureen
dc.titleDetermining ideal staple size for small intestinal surgery in catsen
dc.typeThesisen and Veterinary Sciencesen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen of Scienceen


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