Analysis of Two-point Turbulence Measurements for Aeroacoustics
Simultaneous two-point three-component four-sensor hot-wire velocity measurements taken in three flows of aeroacoustic interest are here analyzed. The analyses provide information on the turbulence structure of the flows as it would be encountered by hypothetical noise producing blades passing through the flows. Two-point measurements taken in the first flow, a lifting wake from a rectangular NACA 0012 half wing, are used to calculate space-time correlation functions and 'pointwise' wave number frequency spectra. Two upwash spectra, calculated for locations in the region of the wake that is roughly homogenous in the spanwise direction, are direct estimates of the full wave number frequency spectra at their locations. As such, they are used to perform aeroacoustic calculations, and the results are compared to results achieved using the von KÃ¡rmÃ¡n isotropic spectrum. Amiet's approximation, where the wave number frequency spectra can be represented by the correlation length scales is found to hold reasonably well for the measured spectra.
The two-point measurements in the second flow, a vortex/blade-tip interaction, are analyzed to provide information useful to researchers of blade-wake interaction noise produced by helicopter rotors. Space-time correlation functions and wave number frequency spectra are calculated for five cuts through the region of interaction. The correlation functions provide information concerning the turbulence length scales found in the interaction region. The spectra are compared to the von KÃ¡rmÃ¡n isotropic spectrum and found to be greatly different. However, the spectra do bear some resemblance to spectra calculated in the spanwise homogenous region of the lifting wake.
The two-point measurements taken in the third flow, the wake from a fan cascade, are analyzed to provide information of use to modelers of broadband noise produced through rotor wake/stator interactions. In particular, space-time correlation functions are calculated for a grid of two-point measurements, which allows the estimation of the turbulence structure as seen by a passing stator blade. Space-time correlation functions and wave number frequency spectra are calculated for various stator configurations. The implications of engine operating speed and stator configuration for broadband noise production are discussed.
[Vita removed March 2, 2012. GMc]