A Comparison of Feedforward versus Feedback Interventions for Safety Self-Management in Mining Operations


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Virginia Tech


This quasi-experimental field study examined the efficacy of a safety self-management intervention to increase safety-related work practices in mining operations. A total of 15 male miners participated in the study while engaging in their normal work practices at the Virginia Tech Quarry, located in Blacksburg, Virginia. The study had two groups, Feedforward (n=8)--participants self-recorded their intentions to engage in specific percentages of safety-related work behaviors before starting their shift for the day, and Feedback (n=7)--participants self-recorded their percentages of safety-related work behaviors after their shift for the day.

After a seven-week Baseline, miners participated in a safety training presentation. Immediately following this training, participants from each group were instructed to complete one self-monitoring form each day on their self-intentions (Feedforward) or actual (Feedback) safety performance for four weeks. Participants were paid $1.00 for each completed self-monitoring form. All completed forms were entered into a raffle for a cash prize of $50.00 at the end of the Intervention phase. During Withdrawal (four weeks) miners did not complete any self-monitoring forms.

Trained research assistants made a total of 10, 905 obtrusive behavioral observations on three target behaviors (ear plugs, dust mask, and safety glasses) and five non-target behaviors (gloves, hard hat, boots, knee position during lifts, body position during lifts) across phases. Results showed the safety self-management intervention significantly increased safety performance across both target and non-target behaviors during the Intervention phase.



behavior analysis, behavior-based safety, consistency, participation, incentive, feedforward, feedback, self-managment, safety