Torpedoes and the gun club: the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II
This thesis examines the shift of torpedo production responsibilities from military to civilian manufacturers as a case study in the use of civilian resources during World War II. The existing structure of the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance failed to produce adequate torpedoes for the first two years of American wartime activity. The Bureau therefore abandoned the existing structure and shifted production to civilian contractors. This change occurred within the broader context of civilian scientific and technica1 invo1vement in military matters during World War II. The torpedo story illustrates one organization's unintentional participation in this process.