Occurrence of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Private Water Supplies in Southwest Virginia

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Virginia Tech


Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of man-made contaminants of increasing human health concern due to their resistance to degradation, widespread occurrence in the environment, bioaccumulation in human and animal organ tissue, and potential negative health impacts. Drinking water is suspected to be a primary source of human PFAS exposure, so the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has set interim and final health advisories for several PFAS species that are applicable to municipal water supplies. However, private drinking water supplies may be uniquely vulnerable to PFAS contamination, as these systems are not subject to EPA regulation and often include limited treatment prior to use for drinking or cooking. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of PFAS contamination in private drinking water supplies in two counties in Southwest Virginia (Floyd and Roanoke), and to examine the potential for reliance on citizen-science based strategies for sample collection in subsequent broader sampling efforts. Samples for inorganic ions, bacteria, and PFAS analysis were collected on separate occasions by homeowners and experts at the home drinking water point of use (POU) in 10 Roanoke and 10 Floyd County homes for comparison. Experts also collected an outside tap PFAS sample. At least one PFAS compound was detected in 76% of POU samples collected (n=60), with an average total PFAS concentration of 23.5 parts per trillion (ppt). PFOA and PFOS, which are currently included in EPA health advisories, were detected in 13% and 22% of POU samples, respectively. Of the 31 PFAS species targeted, 15 were detected in at least one sample. On average, a single POU sample contained approximately 3 PFAS, and one sample contained as many as 8 different species, indicating that exposure to PFAS in complex mixtures is worth noting. Although there were significant differences in total PFAS concentrations between expert and homeowner collected samples (Wilcoxon, alpha = 0.05), it is unclear whether this difference was due to contamination by the collector or the water usage and time of day of sampling (i.e. morning, afternoon). It is worth noting that there was no significant difference in the number of PFAS species in the samples collected by homeowners and experts. Given the considerable variation in PFAS detections between homes, future studies reliant on homeowner collection of samples appears possible given proper training and instruction to collect at the same time of day (i.e. first thing in the morning).



per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), drinking water quality, point of use (POU), groundwater, private drinking water, Cooperative Extension, household wells