Synthesis and Photopolymerization of Novel Dimethacrylates


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Virginia Tech


Four potential new monomers were prepared, all of which were structural analogues of BisGMA (2,2-bis(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxyprop-1-oxy) phenyl)propane). The synthesis of these tetrafunctional dimethacrylate monomers was based on structural modifications of Bis-GMA in the core and the side chain and required a two-step reaction. The first step was propoxylation or ethoxylation of the bisphenols and the second step was the methacrylation of the resulting products. The core structures are designated by Bis-A for isopropylidene and 6F for hexafluoropropyl. The side chain structures were designated on the basis of the pendant side chains in the glycidyl moiety as -OH, -H, and -CH3 from the epichlorohydrin, ethyleneoxide, and propyleneoxide reaction products with the bisphenols, respectively. Bis-GMA was commercially obtained and used as a standard for comparison of the experimental monomers. All the monomers were prepared by the following general procedure of propoxylation or ethoxylation of the biphenols followed by methacrylation. They were characterized by NMR, FTIR, DSC and Cone and Plate Viscometry. All the experimental monomers exhibited lower viscosities and glass transition temperatures than the control, which was attributed to the elimination of the hydrogen bonding. The monomers were photopolymerized in a differential scanning calorimetry modified with an optics assembly (DPA 7; Double Beam Photocalorimetric Accessory) to study the photo-induced crosslinking reactions. The influence of monomer structure, temperature, light intensity, and initiator concentration on the photopolymerization kinetics of ethoxylated and propoxylated dimethacrylates was investigated by isothermal DSC. The DSC curves showed a rapid increase in rate due to the Trommsdorff effect, and then a decline due to the decrease of monomer concentration and the autodeceleration effect. The monomers with lower viscosities and glass transition temperatures exhibited higher conversions of the double bonds. The final extent of conversion increased with curing temperature, light intensity and initiator concentration. The radiation intensity exponent varied from 0.68 (BisGMA) to 0.74 for the ethoxylated 6F system. The initiator exponent were varied from 0.34 (for BisGMA) to 0.44 for the propoxylated BisA system. The ratio of the reaction rate constant (kt/kp) was calculated for PropBisAdm from both steady-state and non steady-state conditions.

The effect of dilution on photopolymerization kinetics of BisGMA/triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) mixtures was also studied by isothermal photo-DSC. Dilution with TEGDMA significantly reduced the viscosity and glass transition temperatures of the mixtures due to the increase in the flexibility. The extent of polymerization increased with increasing TEGDMA and curing temperature. The calculation of ratio of rate constants (kt/kp) was also determined and the significance was discussed herein.



steady-state and non steady-state, Trommsdorff effect, conversion, isothermal photo-DSC, photopolymerization, Dimethacrylates, rate constants