Biology, ecology, and management of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål, is an invasive, herbivorous insect species that was accidentally introduced to the United States from Asia. First discovered in Allentown, PA, in 1996, H. halys has now been reported from at least 40 states in the United States. Additional invasions have been detected in Canada, Switzerland, France, Germany, Italy, and Lichtenstein, suggesting this invasive species could emerge as a cosmopolitan pest species. In its native range, H. halys is classified as an outbreak pest; however, in North America, H. halys has become a major agricultural pest across a wide range of commodities. H. halys is a generalist herbivore, capable of consuming >100 different species of host plants, often resulting in substantial economic damage; its feeding damage resulted in US$37 million of losses in apple in 2010, but this stink bug species also attacks other fruit, vegetable, field crop, and ornamental plant species. H. halys has disrupted integrated pest management programs for multiple cropping systems. Pesticide applications, including broad-spectrum insecticides, have increased in response to H. halys infestations, potentially negatively influencing populations of beneficial arthropods and increasing secondary pest outbreaks. H. halys is also challenging because it affects homeowners as a nuisance pest; the bug tends to overwinter in homes and outbuildings. Although more research is required to better understand the ecology and biology of H. halys,we present its life history, host plant damage, and the management options available for this invasive pest species.