Pediatric diffuse hemispheric glioma H3 G34-mutant with gains of the BRAF locus: An illustrative case


Diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant, is a recently recognized distinct high-grade glioma with a dismal prognosis. In addition to the H3 G34 missense mutation, numerous genetic events have been identified in these malignant tumors, including ATRX, TP53, and, rarely, BRAF genes. There are only a few reports to date that have identified BRAF mutations in diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant. Moreover, to our knowledge, gains of the BRAF locus have yet to be described. Here, we present a case of an 11-year-old male with a diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant, found to have novel gains of the BRAF locus. Furthermore, we emphasize the current genetic landscape of diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant, and implications of an aberrant BRAF signaling pathway.

Oncology, Diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant, H3 K27-mutant, neuro-oncology, pediatric, ACTIVATION, 31 Biological Sciences, 32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, 3105 Genetics, 3211 Oncology and Carcinogenesis, Brain Disorders, Rare Diseases, Neurosciences, Brain Cancer, Genetics, Cancer