Bayesian population dynamics modeling to guide population restoration and recovery of endangered mussels in the Clinch River, Tennessee and Virginia
Freshwater mussels have played an important role in the history of human culture and also in ecosystem functioning. But during the past several decades, the abundance and diversity of mussel species has declined all over the world. To address the urgent need to maintain and restore populations of endangered freshwater mussels, quantitative population dynamics modeling is needed to evaluate population status and guide the management of endangered freshwater mussels. One endangered mussel species, the oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), was selected to study its population dynamics for my research. The analysis was based on two datasets, length frequency data from annual surveys conducted at three sites in Clinch River: Wallen Bend (Clinch River Mile 192) from 2004-2010, Frost Ford (CRM 182) from 2005 to 2010 and Swan Island (CRM 172) from 2005 to 2010, and age-length data based on shell thin-sections. Three hypothetical scenarios were assumed in model estimations: (1) constant natural mortality; (2) one constant natural mortality rate for young mussels and another one for adult mussels; (3) age-specific natural mortality. A Bayesian approach was used to analyze the age-structured models and a Bayesian model averaging approach was applied to average the results by weighting each model using the deviance information criterion (DIC). A risk assessment was conducted to evaluate alternative restoration strategies for E. capsaeformis. The results indicated that releasing adult mussels was the quickest way to increase mussel population size and increasing survival and fertility of young mussels was a suitable way to restore mussel populations in the long term. The population of E. capsaeformis at Frost Ford had a lower risk of decline compared with the populations at Wallen Bend and Swan Island.
Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags were applied in my fieldwork to monitor the translocation efficiency of E. capsaeformis and Actinonaias pectorosa at Cleveland Islands (CRM 270.8). Hierarchical Bayesian models were developed to address the individual variability and sex-related differences in growth. In model selection, the model considering individual variability and sex-related differences (if a species has sexual dimorphism) yielded the lowest DIC value. The results from the best model showed that the mean asymptotic length and mean growth rate of female E. capsaeformis were 45.34 mm and 0.279, which were higher than values estimated for males (42.09 mm and 0.216). The mean asymptotic length and mean growth rate for A. pectorosa were 104.2 mm and 0.063, respectively.
To test for the existence of individual and sex-related variability in survival and recapture rates, Bayesian models were developed to address the variability in the analysis of the mark-recapture data of E. capsaeformis and A. pectorosa. DIC was used to compare different models. The median survival rates of male E. capsaeformis, female E. capsaeformis and A. pectorosa were high (>87%, >74% and >91%), indicating that the habitat at Cleveland Islands was suitable for these two mussel species within this survey duration. In addition, the median recapture rates for E. capsaeformis and A. pectorosa were >93% and >96%, indicating that the PIT tag technique provided an efficient monitoring approach. According to model comparison results, the non-hierarchical model or the model with sex--related differences (if a species is sexually dimorphic) in survival rate was suggested for analyzing mark-recapture data when sample sizes are small.