Extracorporeal Circulation: Effect of Long-Term (24-Hour) Circulation on Blood Components
Extracorporeal circulation damages blood and causes harmful side effects such as stroke and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients. Reactions of blood components to extracorporeal circulation include complement and inflammatory reactions, coagulation and thrombogenesis, frank hemolysis, and platelet activation and adhesion to the extracorporeal circuit. Non-physiologic pressure and flow produced by blood pumps contribute to blood injury. Two pump types, roller and centrifugal, are used for maintaining flow, with various models available from different manufacturers. This study compared the effects of these two pumps in identical, isolated, artificial circuits to a non-pumped control for a period of 24 hours on heparinized porcine blood. Hematology parameters were used to evaluate blood damage. Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were affected by time of circulation. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelet count, and red cell distribution width were different between circulated and non-circulated blood, however no differences were found between the pumping systems in any parameter. Red blood cell count, total hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected by time or treatment. The changes observed in this study have implications for the use of extracorporeal circulation in the clinical setting and in future use of blood as a potential organ perfusion medium.