Separation of tread-pattern noise in tire-pavement interaction noise
Tire-pavement interaction noise is one of the dominant sources of vehicle noise, and one of the most significant sources of urban noise pollution. One critical generation mechanism of tire-pavement interaction noise is tire tread excitation. The tire tread contributes to the tire-pavement interaction noise mainly through two mechanisms: (1) tread block impact, and (2) the compression and expansion of the air in the tread groove at the contact patch. The tread pattern is the critical part of the tire design since it can be easily modified. Hence, the main focus of this study is to quantify the tread pattern contribution in total tire-pavement interaction noise. To achieve this goal, the noise produced by the tread pattern is separated from the total tire-pavement interaction noise. Since the tread pattern excitation is periodic with tire rotation, the noise produced by the tread is assumed to be related to the tire rotation. Hence, the order domain synchronous averaging method is used in this study to separate and quantify the tread pattern contribution to the total tire-pavement interaction noise. The experiment has been carried out using an On-Board-Sound-Intensity (OBSI) system. Five tires were tested including the Standard Reference Test Tire (SRTT). Compared to the conventional OBSI system, an optical sensor was added to the system to monitor the tire rotation. The once per revolution signal provided by the optical sensor is used to identify the noise signals associate to each revolution.
In addition to the averaging method using optical signals, other data processing techniques have been investigated for separating the tread-pattern noise without utilizing the once per revolution signal. These techniques are autocorrelation analysis, a frequency domain filter, principal component analysis, and independent component analysis.
In the tread-pattern noise generation, the tread profile is the most important input parameter. To characterize the tread profile, the tread pattern spectral content and air volume velocity spectral content for all the five tires are computed. Then, the tread pattern spectrum and the air volume velocity spectrum are both correlated with the separated tread-pattern noise by visual inspection of the spectra shape.