Stock market reactions to favorable and unfavorable information security events: A systematic literature review


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The rapid digital transformations across every industry sector, accelerated partly due to the COVID-19 pandemic, have increased organizations’ use of information systems for operational and strategic purposes. These organizational responses have led to a confluence of digital, biological, and physical technologies that are revolutionizing business practices and workflows. But accompanying the pervasive use of digital technologies and the evolutionary nature of digital assets, is a shifting world of cyberattacks and information security (ISec) cybercrimes. Dynamic cybercrimes make it increasingly difficult for managers and researchers to anticipate the types, magnitude, and severity of future information security (ISec) breaches. Thus, we perform a systematic literature review (SLR) that explores, gathers, and categorizes event studies to examine the influence of favorable and unfavorable ISec events on stock markets. We extend the research conducted by Spanos and Angelis (2016) and provide a comprehensive understanding of the market's efficiency to process public information released about ISec events, ISec contingency factors, and the influence of ISec events on stock prices and factors other than price. Our systematic search reveals 58 relevant papers that include 80 studies. We find that in 75% of the studies ISec events can significantly affect a company's stock market performance, and that such effects are primarily exhibited within two days before and after the event day. Further, the magnitude of abnormal returns is higher in studies examining unfavorable ISec events, such as ISec breaches, compared to abnormal returns from favorable events, such as ISec investments and ISec certifications. In the end, our SLR serves as a foundation for ISec and management communities to build upon to keep industry and academia apprised of continually developing trends, new attack vectors and types of data breaches, protective ISec behaviors and programs, and their subsequent influences on stock market values and returns.



Technology, Computer Science, Information Systems, Computer Science, Event study methodology (ESM), Information security (ISec) breaches, Systematic literature review (SLR), ISec events, ISec investments, Efficient market hypothesis, Contingency factors, Abnormal returns, IDENTITY THEFT COUNTERMEASURES, BREACH ANNOUNCEMENTS, EMPIRICAL-EVIDENCE, ECONOMIC-IMPACT, PROSPECT-THEORY, FIRM, RISK, INVESTMENT, PERFORMANCE, DISCLOSURES, Pub SA, Pillar Security Privacy Trust, AACSB Table 1 Scholar Contribution, 08 Information and Computing Sciences, Strategic, Defence & Security Studies