Avoiding Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibiting Herbicide Selection Pressure on Common Ragweed and Palmer amaranth in Soybean
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) can cause detrimental soybean yield loss. Due to widespread resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides, growers rely on protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibiting herbicides (PPO) such as flumioxazin applied preemergence (PRE) and fomesafen postemergence (POST) to control both weeds. Experiments were conducted with the overarching goal of reducing PPO selection pressure for Palmer amaranth and common ragweed. Flumioxazin alone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth near 100%. However, sulfentrazone combined with pyroxasulfone or pendimethalin provided similar control to flumioxazin. Acetochlor and linuron controlled common ragweed <74%, yet controlled Palmer amaranth >96%. Glufosinate applied POST controlled Palmer amaranth and common ragweed 74-100%, regardless of PRE treatment. Flumioxazin PRE followed by fomesafen POST controlled common ragweed well; however, several non-PPO herbicide treatments or programs with only 1 PPO-inhibiting herbicide provided similar common ragweed control as the 2 PPO system (flumioxazin followed by fomesafen). Treatments consisting of a PRE and POST herbicide controlled Palmer amaranth at least 80% and common ragweed 95%. To reduce PPO selection pressure, soybean producers growing glufosinate-resistant soybean may use flumioxazin PRE followed by glufosinate POST whereas non-glufosinate-resistant soybean growers should reduce PPO herbicide use by using a non-PPO herbicide PRE. Alternatively, these producers can effectively reduce PPO selection pressure by implementing residual combinations of a PPO-inhibiting herbicide + non-PPO with spectrums of weed control that overlap at either Palmer amaranth or common ragweed.