Mating disruption in apple orchards: dispenser release rates, generic blends and community impact
The release rates of two Pacific Biocontrol codling moth, one AgriSense grape berry moth and two Pacific Biocontrol grape berry moth dispensers were studied using gravimetric measurements. It was found that the addition of titanium dioxide to the polyethylene mixture significantly reduced the release rate of the dispenser when compared with a transparent design. The AgriSense dispenser's release rate could not be determined gravimetrically, possibly due to water absorption. The Pacific Biocontrollong life grape berry moth dispenser was more effective than the normal type.
The effect of other species' sex pheromone blends and generic blends upon the mating behavior of Platynota flavedana Clemens, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker), Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) was studied using small plots. It was determined that the sex pheromone blend for P. flavedanamay control populations of P. idaeusalis and that the two generic blends developed may control P. flavedana, P. idaeusalis and A. velutinana.
The impact of a low spray mating disruption program upon the ground dwelling arthropods was investigated. It was determined that a low spray mating disruption program may be more compatible with populations of natural enemies. More taxa, species and individuals were present because of the absence of damaging prays. Orchard management of ground cover also seemed to play an important role in determining taxa and species present in orchards.