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- The 1972 Virginia Outdoor Recreation InventoryLeuschner, William A.; Groves, David L.; Bolger, William T.; Stokes, Gerald L. (Virginia Tech. Division of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, 1974)The Virginia Commission of Outdoor Recreation coordinated the inventorying of outdoor recreation facilities in the state between June and December, 1972. The inventory is an integral part of the Virginia Outdoors Plan Information System. Its primary purpose was to provide data for the Commission to formulate and write the statewide comprehensive outdoor recreation plan. However, the intended use of these data was much broader. It was envisaged that they would be useful for other planning activities, such as those conducted by federal and state agencies or the 22 Planning District Commissions in Virginia, as well as for various research activities, special studies, and teaching. The purpose of this publication is threefold. The first is to encourage further use of the data by informing the public of its existence and the specific variables contained therein. The second is to present a limited but comprehensive set of data which can be used to answer general inquiries and which will save interested parties the trouble of writing to obtain it. Finally, we wish to inform the public of the availability of the data in other forms which may better suit individual needs but which would be too numerous to publish in this bulletin.
- The 1977 Virginia Outdoor Recreation Demand SurveyRoggenbuck, Joseph W. (Virginia Tech. Division of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, 1978)Knowledge of the present and projected public demand for outdoor recreation is a key element in the planning of a comprehensive system of outdoor recreation opportunities throughout Virginia. Public preferences for outdoor recreation experiences have changed dramatically in recent years, and formal measures of demand at any point in time remain only approximate. Nevertheless, demand analyses that are based upon the premise of satisfying public needs--as the public defines them--have a solid basis in the traditions and policies of governmental service agencies, and do provide a general guide for the planning, acquisition and development of outdoor recreation lands and facilities. This outdoor recreation demand booklet, published by the School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Virginia Commission of Outdoor Recreation, has three general purposes. The first is to provide federal, state and local agencies and organizations with responsibilities for the provision of outdoor recreation services with guidelines on current and projected demand for recreation activities by state, region, and locality. The second is to make the demand estimates easily available to agencies and organizations whose responsibilities do not include outdoor recreation but whose activities may impinge upon that system. Finally, the data contained here should be useful in various research activities, special studies, and teaching regarding the Virginia outdoor recreation system.
- The 1977 Virginia Outdoor Recreation Needs AssessmentRoggenbuck, Joseph W. (Virginia Tech. Division of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, 1978)This outdoor recreation needs assessment booklet, published by the School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Virginia Commission of Outdoor Recreation, has three general purposes. Its primary purpose is to provide guidelines on the amount and location of current and projected needs for additional outdoor recreational opportunities to federal, state, and local agencies and organizations with responsibilities for the provision of outdoor recreation services. The second is to make the needs estimates easily available to agencies and organizations whose responsibilities do not include outdoor recreation, but whose activities may impinge upon that system. Finally, the data contained here should be useful in various research activities, special studies, and teaching regarding the Virginia outdoor recreation system. Need for outdoor recreation land and facilities, as defined in this booklet, represents the difference between demand for and supply of outdoor recreation opportunities. As such, a needs assessment requires the previous calculation of present and projected recreation demand and a thorough inventory of existing recreation supply. These analyses were accomplished in 1977 and have been published as the 1977 Virginia Outdoor Recreation Demand Survey and the 1977 Virginia Outdoor Recreation Inventory. Copies of these booklets are available from the Virginia Commission of Outdoor Recreation. Since the needs estimates are dependent upon the ever-changing demand for and supply of outdoor recreation lands and facilities, the figures contained in this booklet are only approximate. The estimates should be viewed as providing general guidelines for decision-making, and not as precise measures of current deficiencies in the state's outdoor recreation system.
- The 1977 Virginia Outdoor Recreation SurveySpittle, Gerald D.; Buhyoff, Gregory J.; Davy, John R. Jr.; McElwee, Robert L. (Virginia Tech. Division of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, 1978)The Virginia Commission of Outdoor Recreation coordinated through the Planning District Commissions an inventory of statewide recreation resources between April, 1977 and September, 1977. The School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, transferred the data into a computerized retrieval system from which this summary booklet was derived. This inventory is an integral part of the Virginia Outdoors Plan Information System. Its primary purpose is to provide information enabling the Commission to formulate and write the statewide comprehensive outdoor recreation plan. It is also envisaged that this data be used for other planning activities, such as those conducted by federal and state agencies or the 22 Planning District Commissions in Virginia, as well as for various research activities, special studies, and teaching. The purpose of this publication is threefold. The first is to encourage further use of the data it contains by informing the public of the specific type of information available. The second is to present a comprehensive set of data which can be used to answer general inquiries about the nature and distribution of recreation resources in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Finally, it is to advise that this data is available in other forms which may better suit individual needs but which would be too numerous to publish in this bulletin.
- The 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act : impacts on Virginia's water supply industryCox, William E.; Sherrard, Joseph H.; Gaw, Christopher D. (Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1991-10)
- 1987 Virginia Water Resources Research Forum : Briefing Papers(Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 1987)
- 1998 General Assembly Legislation Related to WaterVirginia Water Resources Research Center; Manfre, Joseph (Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 1998)The Virginia General Assembly held its regular session from January 14 to March 17, then reconvened April 22-23 to respond to the governor’s vetoes. A special session on April 23-24 passed the budget along with car-tax and school-construction-grant legislation. During the regular session, 2152 bills were considered (939 passing, 651 failing, and 562 carried over until 1999), along with 730 joint resolutions (580 passing, 115 failing, and 36 carried over). Among all this legislative action were 97 water-related bills and joint resolutions.1 (Hereafter, we will use “bills” to include both bills and joint resolutions.) To identify bills related to water, we used the Legislative Information System’s subject index, looking first under two categories: “Waters of the State, Ports and Harbors” and “Water and Sewer Systems.” Of the 97 bills listed below, 73 were in one of these two categories. We then found 24 other pertinent bills under these categories: Conservation; Fisheries and Habitat of Tidal Waters; and Game, Inland Fisheries and Boating.
- 2007 NSF REU Proceedings of Research: Research Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Watershed Sciences and Engineering(Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 2008)
- 2008 NSF REU Proceedings of Research: Research Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Watershed Sciences and Engineering(Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 2008)
- 2009 NSF REU Proceedings of Research: Research Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Watershed Sciences and Engineering(Virginia Water Resources Research Center, 2009)
- 2011 Annual Report, Center for Forest Products Business(Virginia Tech. Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, 2011-08)This annual report details student and faculty accomplishments for the Center in 2010-2011.
- 2018 Annual Report: Virginia Big Tree ProgramWiseman, P. Eric (Virginia Tech. Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, 2018)The Virginia Big Tree Program is a public outreach program coordinated by Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation at Virginia Tech. The program maintains a register of the 3 largest specimens of over 300 native, non-native, and naturalized tree species. This annual report details program accomplishments in 2018, including Big Tree reports, national rankings, and student intern contributions.
- 3D printing of lignin: Challenges, opportunities and roads onwardEbers, L. -S.; Arya, Aditi; Bowland, C. C.; Glasser, Wolfgang G.; Chmely, S. C.; Naskar, A. K.; Laborie, Marie-Pierre Genevieve (2021-06)As the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, and as a resource recently becoming more available in separated and purified form on an industrial scale due to the development of new isolation technologies, lignin has a key role to play in transitioning our material industry towards sustainability. Additive manufacturing (AM), the most efficient-material processing technology to date, has likewise made great strides to promote sustainable industrial solutions to our needs in engineered products. Bringing lignin research to AM has prompted the emergence of the nascent "lignin 3D printing" field. This review presents the recent state of art of this promising field and highlights its challenges and opportunities. Following a review of the industrial availability, molecular attributes, and associated properties of technical lignins, we review R&D efforts at implementing lignin systems in extrusion-based and stereolithography (SLA) printing technologies. Doing so underlines the adage of lignin research that "all lignins are not created equal," and stresses the opportunity nested in this chemical diversity created mostly by differences in isolation conditions to molecularly select and tune the attributes of technical lignin systems towards desirable properties, be it by modification or polymer blending. Considering the AM design process in its entirety, we finally propose onward routes to bring the full potential to this emerging field. We hope that this review can help promote the unique value and overdue industrial role of lignin in sustainable engineered materials and products.
- Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Sequestration in Shelterbelt Trees in Canada: A ReviewMayrinck, Rafaella C.; Laroque, Colin P.; Amichev, Beyhan Y.; Van Rees, Ken (MDPI, 2019-10-19)Shelterbelts have been planted around the world for many reasons. Recently, due to increasing awareness of climate change risks, shelterbelt agroforestry systems have received special attention because of the environmental services they provide, including their greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. This paper aims to discuss shelterbelt history in Canada, and the environmental benefits they provide, focusing on carbon sequestration potential, above- and below-ground. Shelterbelt establishment in Canada dates back to more than a century ago, when their main use was protecting the soil, farm infrastructure and livestock from the elements. As minimal-and no-till systems have become more prevalent among agricultural producers, soil has been less exposed and less vulnerable to wind erosion, so the practice of planting and maintaining shelterbelts has declined in recent decades. In addition, as farm equipment has grown in size to meet the demands of larger landowners, shelterbelts are being removed to increase efficiency and machine maneuverability in the field. This trend of shelterbelt removal prevents shelterbelt’s climate change mitigation potential to be fully achieved. For example, in the last century, shelterbelts have sequestered 4.85 Tg C in Saskatchewan. To increase our understanding of carbon sequestration by shelterbelts, in 2013, the Government of Canada launched the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AGGP). In five years, 27 million dollars were spent supporting technologies and practices to mitigate GHG release on agricultural land, including understanding shelterbelt carbon sequestration and to encourage planting on farms. All these topics are further explained in this paper as an attempt to inform and promote shelterbelts as a climate change mitigation tool on agricultural lands.
- Above-ground tree carbon storage in response to nitrogen deposition in the US is heterogeneous and may have weakenedClark, Christopher M.; Thomas, R. Quinn; Horn, Kevin J. (Springer Nature, 2023-02-14)Long-term nitrogen deposition may not provide sustained stimulation of tree carbon storage, suggest analyses of a tree inventory and growth for the contiguous US between 2000 and 2016, compared to data for the 1980s and 1990s. Changes in nitrogen (N) availability affect the ability for forest ecosystems to store carbon (C). Here we extend an analysis of the growth and survival of 94 tree species and 1.2 million trees, to estimate the incremental effects of N deposition on changes in aboveground C (dC/dN) across the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). We find that although the average effect of N deposition on aboveground C is positive for the CONUS (dC/dN = +9 kg C per kg N), there is wide variation among species and regions. Furthermore, in the Northeastern U.S. where we may compare responses from 2000-2016 with those from the 1980s-90s, we find the recent estimate of dC/dN is weaker than from the 1980s-90s due to species-level changes in responses to N deposition. This suggests that the U.S. forest C-sink varies widely across forests and may be weakening overall, possibly necessitating more aggressive climate policies than originally thought.
- Abundance of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) in the Delaware Bay areaHata, David; Berkson, James M. (National Marine Fisheries Service Scientific Publication Office, 2003-10)Discusses a study on horseshoe crabs in the vicinity of Delaware Bay. Abundance of horseshoe crabs in the area; Factor that influenced horseshoe crab catchability; Mean abundance estimate for all crabs.
- Accuracy Assessment of the NLCD 2006 Impervious Surface for Roanoke and BlacksburgZhao, Suwen; Feng, Leyang; Shao, Yang; Dymond, Randel L. (2014)Impervious surface map products are important for the study of urbanization, urban heat island effects, watershed hydrology, water pollution, and ecosystem services in general. At the conterminous US scale, impervious surfaces are mapped for 2001 and 2006. The accuracy of the 2006 NLCD impervious surface, however, has not been thoroughly examined, especially for small and intermediate size cities (e.g., regional city). In this study, we selected two transects in two cities and visually interpreted aerial photo to develop impervious surface reference maps. We then compared percent impervious surface of the NLCD and aerial photo-interpreted reference maps. The comparison was conducted at 90m resolution to minimize the errors in image registration. Overall, we found that the 2006 NLCD impervious surface matched well with our reference data, although slight skewness at two extremes is present. The R² and RMSE statistics improved when the two datasets are compared at coarse aggregation levels (e.g. 180m).
- Accuracy of Visible and Ultraviolet Light for Estimating Live Root Proportions with MinirhizotronsWang, Z. Q.; Burch, W. H.; Mou, P.; Jones, R. H.; Mitchell, R. J. (Ecological Society of America, 1995-10)