- A Proposed Analysis of the Prevalence Rates of Comorbidity Between Schizophrenia and Individual Personality Disorder ClustersWaters, Shelby; Hoffer, Loralee; Ploof, Hayley; Abu-Izz, Judy (2021-05-05)This study seeks to identify the comorbidities between schizophrenia and personality disorders in order to discover which DSM-5 cluster is most prevalent in those with schizophrenia. Cluster A (odd, eccentric thinking and/or behavior), cluster B (dramatic, unpredictable thinking and/or behavior), and cluster C (anxious, fearful thinking and/or behavior) are the three personality disorder clusters specified by the DSM-5. Two designs are presented, with the non-experimental being more appropriate. An experimental approach to the research question entails the random assignment of situations that warrant a reaction from those participating in the study. A non-experimental approach to the research question entails an exploratory case study in which multiple mediums of data are collected. Both designs establish a relationship between schizophrenia and personality disorders, as well as exhibit which personality disorder is most prevalent. This research allows experts in many fields to better understand schizophrenia and subsequently develop accurate treatments. This product is a learning artifact from the Spring 2021 semester of the Introduction to Honors Quantitative and Qualitative Research course (UH-1604). Primary instructor: Anne-Lise Velez; Secondary instructor: Nikki Lewis; Graduate Teaching Assistant: Joseph Daniel
- Artificial Intelligence Powered Facial Recognition in the Public EyeOrr, Jack; Waite, Lucy; Taylor, TJ; Ulmishek-Anderson, Phineas (2021-05-05)Artificial Intelligence’s use in facial recognition has led to improvements in efficiency for many different groups, including law enforcement, however its use in society has been met with controversy due to the general public’s distrust in different entities using the technology. Our research focus seeks to understand why the public may distrust facial recognition AI or find its usage unethical, as well as determining the different cases in which the general public would trust the technology. We aim to study this through a non-experimental research design that distributes surveys to the public measuring their levels of trust in facial recognition AI. Understanding our research focus through this non-experimental design will allow AI users to better understand the cases in which they can use AI ethically without upsetting the general public or violating any essential rights. This product is a learning artifact from the Spring 2021 semester of the Introduction to Honors Quantitative and Qualitative Research course (UH-1604). Primary instructor: Anne-Lise Velez; Secondary instructor: Nikki Lewis; Graduate Teaching Assistant: Joseph Daniel
- Comparison of Energy Efficiency, Eco-Friendliness, Cost, and Convenience of Phase-Change and Biosolar Materials in Solar PanelsVaughan, Clint; Richardson, Kelly; Yang, Jiongzhi (2019-05-08)Solar energy is a clean, renewable energy source that is a good alternative to nonrenewable energy sources. Currently, the two major materials utilized in solar panels are phase change materials (PCMs) and biosolar materials. The purpose of this study is to determine whether biosolar materials or phase change materials are better overall, in terms of energy efficiency, cost and convenience, and eco-friendliness in solar panels. Utilizing solar panels that implement phase-change materials or bio-solar materials, this study explores the energy efficiency, cost and convenience, and eco-friendliness, in a variety of different conditions and designs, for each type of material. To ensure that an overall finding on the better type of material can be found, this study uses a rating system, based on government regulations, industry standards, experimental data, and common scientific values. It is expected that there is higher energy efficiency with the utilization of phase-change materials than with bio-solar materials. However, it is expected that the bio-solar materials are more eco-friendly than the phase-change materials. Overall, it is expected that bio-solar materials are the better choice for solar panels because of their eco-friendliness, low cost, and similar energy efficiency to phase-change materials. The findings of this study can help to push communities to make an informed decision on a switch to renewable energy methods. More importantly, this study supports the use of clean, renewable energy with biosolar material solar panels, to combat rapid change in global climate and negative impacts of most nonrenewable energy sources.
- The Effect of Reading Workshops on Ability to Identify PseudoscienceLou, Lan; McCartney, Abby; Makwana, Sunny (2019-05-08)Pseudoscience, or scientific research presented with manipulated data or conducted with flawed methods, has measurable and potentially dangerous impacts on society. With increasing media focus on pseudoscientific data, learning how to identify pseudoscience is vital to the modern public. As such, this research project seeks to assess if the average person can distinguish pseudoscience from peer-reviewed science based on visual cues within the writings, such as experimental methods, tone, and organization of the paper. A critical reading workshop will be implemented to train individuals to recognize pseudoscience so that they may base important, life-altering decisions on reliable sources. Individuals in six different age groups will be presented with two medical research articles, one peer-reviewed and one pseudoscientific, and will be asked to label which is which and explain their answers. Afterwards, we will lead a short language workshop designed to develop critical reading skills. Next, we will survey the age groups again. We expect to find close to half of each age group in the sample will be unable to determine the pseudoscientific article from the initial survey. Our estimates may increase for specific age groups based on prior research. After completing our workshop, we expect meaningfully larger portions of individuals will be able to recognize falsified work. In summary, the workshop strategy suggests that workshops should be implemented into educational systems so that citizens are better prepared to analyze scientific research when making important decisions for themselves and their children.
- Mental Health Treatment in United States Prison Systems: The Influence of Varying Treatment Methods on Inmates with SchizophreniaMarr, Corinne; Morris, Jill; Francis, Kathryn; Schmidt, Mattie (2019-05-08)Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder that produces symptoms commonly of hallucinations, delusions, movement disorders, and confused thought or speech. Americans diagnosed with schizophrenia are three times more likely to be imprisoned than hospitalized for their symptom expression, thus necessitating prison reform to treat individuals and reduce repeat offenses. The influence of mental health treatments on inmates with schizophrenia (IWS) in the United States will be analyzed. In order to conduct the research, surveys will be distributed to IWS in 100 prisons across the United States. Five caregivers and 45 IWS within each prison will fill out six surveys over a six month period with questions that measure changes in levels of delusions, hallucinations, interpersonal distress, and disorganized thought that IWS express while incarcerated. Changes in symptoms will be analyzed over the six month period to observe how medications and other forms of treatment affect symptoms of IWS. Federal prisons fail to classify serious mental illnesses in prisoners and only require treatment in 3% of inmates. In comparison, California prisons classified over 30% of inmates in need of regular treatment for serious mental illness. Lack of treatment causes many IWS to experience heightened negative symptoms which, without treatment, drove some inmates to attempt suicide. Administering antipsychotic drugs, providing counseling, and offering emotional therapy to people with schizophrenia reduces their negative symptoms, which would help current inmates, and keep non-incarcerated people with schizophrenia out of prison.
- The Impact of Microplastic Ingestion on the Bivalve Filtration Efficiency of the Hooked Mussel (Ischadium recurvum) from the Chesapeake BayBetsill, Matthew; Gonzalez, Juan; Woods, Allison (2019-05-08)Microplastic pollution is an increasing issue as sea animals are observed with pollutants within their bodies and cells. Mussels and other marine bivalves have the capability to filter phytoplanktonic organisms and chemical pollutants, but cannot break down microplastics if ingested. Because bivalves filter pollutants out of the water, many kinds of debris enter their systems. It is hypothesized that microplastics will reduce the efficiency of the Ischadium recurvum and its ability to filter toxins that deteriorate water quality. This study will determine the effect of intaking 5 to 50-micrometer diameter plastic on the filtering efficiency of Ischadium recurvum. The experiment will prepare two 10-gallon water samples with 34% salinity and water turbidity of ~100 NTU from the algae concentration for mussels’ environment. Twelve mussels will be collected from the York River to measure the nutrient concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration, water transparency, and chlorophyll concentration to determine the water quality before and after the filtration in both the controlled and polluted environment. A comparison of the two water quality results will determine how microplastics have affected the mussels’ filtration. The mussels are expected to completely filter out the contaminants in the control test and experimental trial with microplastic contaminants, albeit at a slower rate. With a bivalve system, mussels can capture particles at a low nutritive value, which will slow down consumption, but leave little filtration difference. The study will provide information for bay restoration projects to utilize different mussels to filter bay water at a higher efficiency.