Adaptation to Information Technology: A Holistic Nomological Network from Implementation to Job Outcomes
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Information technology (IT) implementation is a major organizational change event that substantially disrupts an employee's work environment. We develop a model of technology adaptation behaviors that employees perform to cope with a new IT that causes such disruptions. Our model posits technology adaptation behaviors as a key linking mechanism between IT implementation and employee job outcomes, thus offering a holistic nomological network of technology adaptation behaviors. Two field studies conducted over a period of six months, with four waves of data collection each, in two organizations (N D211 and N D181) implementing two different ITs, supported the model. We found that employees performed four different technology adaptation behaviors-exploration-to-innovate, exploitation, exploration-to-revert, and avoidance-based on whether they appraised an IT as an opportunity or a threat and whether they had perceptions of control over an IT. Employees' experiential engagements (i.e., user participation and training effectiveness) and psychological engagements (i.e., user involvement and management support) during the implementation jointly determined their appraisal of an IT. Finally, we found that technology adaptation behaviors influenced changes in two key job outcomes, job performance and job satisfaction.