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Design of RF CMOS Power Amplifier for UWB Applications
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Ever since the FCC allocated 7.5 GHz (from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz) for ultra wideband (UWB) technology, interest has been renewed in both academic and industrial circles to exploit this vast spectrum for short range, high data rate wireless applications. The great potential of UWB lies in the fact that it can co-exist with the already licensed spectrum users and can still pave the way for a wide range of applications. However, this wide bandwidth complicates the circuit level implementation of key RF blocks like the power amplifier (PA), transmit/receive switch, low noise amplifier (LNA) and mixers in an UWB transceiver. Though expensive technologies like SiGe or GaAs have been used for transceiver realizations, the ultimate goal is to have a single-chip, low-cost solution which can only be achieved by using CMOS technology. Nevertheless, some of the inherent limitations of CMOS like lower fT of transistors make the design of UWB circuits in CMOS an extremely challenging task. Two proposals- Multi-Band OFDM and Direct-Sequence CDMA have been put before the IEEE 802.15.3a task group to decide on the industry standard for the commercial deployment of this technology. Though the debate on which standard is better has not been resolved, proponents of both the groups have already begun to develop prototypes of their respective proposals. This thesis describes the design of a key RF block in the UWB transceiver - the Power Amplifier. For the first part of this work, a PA suitable for MB-OFDM specifications was designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology. The class-AB PA is able to cover the lower UWB frequency band from 3.1 GHz to 4.75 GHz and delivers an output power of -2 dBm at 4 GHz. Simulated results show a gain of 19±2 dB achieved over the entire band and the PA consumes 36.54 mW from a 1.8V supply. In the second part of this work, a PA that meets the DS-CDMA specifications was designed and fabricated. This PA operates in the class-AB regime, delivering an output power of -4.2 dBm with input-1dB compression point at -22 dBm. Complete design and implementation was done using TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology and it consumes a very low power of 25 mW, while realizing a flat gain of 19±1 dB across the whole band of operation. All the above mentioned results are from simulations in SpectreRF and measurements are yet to be taken. Additional features like power ON/OFF scheme and output impedance control has also been incorporated in the design.
- Masters Theses