Global Optimization of Transmitter Placement for Indoor Wireless Communication Systems
The DIRECT (DIviding RECTangles) algorithm JONESJOTi, a variant of Lipschitzian methods for bound constrained global optimization, has been applied to the optimal transmitter placement for indoor wireless systems. Power coverage and BER (bit error rate) are considered as two criteria for optimizing locations of a specified number of transmitters across the feasible region of the design space. The performance of a DIRECT implementation in such applications depends on the characteristics of the objective function, the problem dimension, and the desired solution accuracy. Implementations with static data structures often fail in practice because of unpredictable memory requirements. This is especially critical in S⁴W (Site-Specific System Simulator for Wireless communication systems), where the DIRECT optimization is just one small component connected to a parallel 3D propagation ray tracing modeler running on a 200-node Beowulf cluster of Linux workstations, and surrogate functions for a WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access) simulator are also used to estimate the channel performance. Any component failure of this large computation would abort the entire design process. To make the DIRECT global optimization algorithm efficient and robust, a set of dynamic data structures is proposed here to balance the memory requirements with execution time, while simultaneously adapting to arbitrary problem size. The focus is on design issues of the dynamic data structures, related memory management strategies, and application issues of the DIRECT algorithm to the transmitter placement optimization for wireless communication systems. Results for two indoor systems are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present work.