Plant Adaptation to Multiple Stresses during Submergence and Following Desubmergence
Plants require water for growth and development, but excessive water negatively affects their productivity and viability. Flash floods occasionally result in complete submergence of plants in agricultural and natural ecosystems. When immersed in water, plants encounter multiple stresses including low oxygen, low light, nutrient deficiency, and high risk of infection. As floodwaters subside, submerged plants are abruptly exposed to higher oxygen concentration and greater light intensity, which can induce post-submergence injury caused by oxidative stress, high light, and dehydration. Recent studies have emphasized the significance of multiple stress tolerance in the survival of submergence and prompt recovery following desubmergence. A mechanistic understanding of acclimation responses to submergence at molecular and physiological levels can contribute to the deciphering of the regulatory networks governing tolerance to other environmental stresses that occur simultaneously or sequentially in the natural progress of a flood event.