Received Signal Strength-Based Localization of Non-Collaborative Emitters in the Presence of Correlated Shadowing
RSS-based localization is a promising solution for estimating the position of a non-collaborative emitter using a network of collaborative sensors. This paper examines RSS-based localization and differential RSS (DRSS) localization in the presence of correlated shadowing with no knowledge of the emitter's reference power. A new non-linear least squares (NLS) DRSS location estimator that uses correlated shadowing information to improve performance is introduced. The existing maximum likelihood (ML) estimator and Cram' er Rao lower bound (CRLB) for RSS-based localization given do not account for correlated shadowing. This paper presents a new ML estimator and CRLB for RSS-based localization that account for spatially correlated shadowing and imperfect knowledge of the emitter's reference power. The performance of the ML estimator is compared to the CRLB under different simulation conditions. The ML estimator is shown to be biased when the number of sensors is small or the shadowing variance is large. The effects of correlated shadowing on an RSS-based location estimator are thoroughly examined. It is proven that an increase in correlated shadowing will improve the accuracy of an RSS-based location estimator. It is also demonstrated that the ideal sensor geometry which minimizes the average error becomes more compact as correlation is increased. A geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) formulation is derived that provides a metric for the effect of the position of the sensors and emitter on the location estimator performance.
A measurement campaign is conducted that characterizes the path loss at 3.4 GHz. The measurements are compared to the log-distance model. The errors between the model and the measurements, which should theoretically be Gaussian, have a Kurtosis value of 1.31. The errors were determined to be spatially correlated with an average correlation coefficient of 0.5 at a distance of 160 meters. The performance of the location estimators in simulation is compared to the performance using measurements from the measurement campaign. The performance is very similar, with the largest difference between the simulated and actual results in the ML estimator. In both cases, the new NLS DRSS estimator outperformed the other estimators and achieved the CRLB.