Plant essential oils synergize various pyrethroid insecticides and antagonize malathion in Aedes aegypti


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Pyrethroid resistance is a significant threat to agricultural, urban and public health pest control activities. Because economic incentives for the production of novel active ingredients for the control of public health pests are lacking, this field is particularly affected by the potential failure of pyrethroid-based insecticides brought about by increasing pyrethroid resistance. As a result, innovative approaches are desperately needed to overcome insecticide resistance, particularly in mosquitoes that transmit deadly and debilitating pathogens. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of plant essential oils to enhance the efficacy of pyrethroids. The toxicity of pyrethroids combined with plant oils is significantly greater than the baseline toxicity of either oils or pyrethroids applied alone, which suggests there are synergistic interactions between components of these mixtures. The present study examined the potential of eight plant essential oils applied in one of two concentrations (1% and 5%) to enhance the toxicity of various pyrethroids (permethrin, natural pyrethrins, deltamethrin and β-cyfluthrin). The various plant essential oils enhanced the pyrethroids to differing degrees. The levels of enhancement provided by combinations of plant essential oils and pyrethroids in comparison with pyrethroids alone were calculated and synergistic outcomes characterized. Numerous plant essential oils significantly synergized a variety of pyrethroids; type I pyrethroids were synergized to a greater degree than type II pyrethroids. Eight plant essential oils significantly enhanced 24-h mortality rates provided by permethrin and six plant essential oils enhanced 24-h mortality rates obtained with natural pyrethrins. By contrast, only three plant essential plants significantly enhanced the toxicity of deltamethrin and β-cyfluthrin. Of the plant essential oils that enhanced the toxicity of these pyrethroids, some produced varying levels of synergism and antagonism. Geranium, patchouli and Texas cedarwood oils produced the highest levels of synergism, displaying co-toxicity factors of > 100 in some combinations. To assess the levels of enhancement and synergism of other classes of insecticide, malathion was also applied in combination with the plant oils. Significant antagonism was provided by a majority of the plant essential oils applied in combination with this insecticide, which suggests that plant essential oils may act to inhibit the oxidative activation processes within exposed adult mosquitoes.



Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Entomology, Veterinary Sciences, pyrethroids, plant essential oils, enhance, synergize, malathion, PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE, RESISTANT, DIPTERA, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, DELTAMETHRIN, INHIBITION, TOXICITY, RECEPTOR, VECTOR, Tropical Medicine, 06 Biological Sciences, 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, 11 Medical and Health Sciences