New Cytogenetic Photomap and Molecular Diagnostics for the Cryptic Species of the Malaria Mosquitoes Anopheles messeae and Anopheles daciae from Eurasia

Abstract

The Eurasian malaria vector Anopheles messeae is a widely spread and genetically diverse species. Five widespread polymorphic chromosomal inversions were found in natural populations of this mosquito. A cryptic species, Anopheles daciae, was differentiated from An. messeae by the presence of several nucleotide substitutions in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA. However, because of the absence of a high-quality reference cytogenetic map, the inversion polymorphisms in An. daciae and An. messeae remain poorly understood. Moreover, a recently determined heterogeneity in ITS2 in An. daciae questioned the accuracy of the previously used Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay for species diagnostics. In this study, a standard-universal cytogenetic map was constructed based on orcein stained images of chromosomes from salivary glands for population studies of the chromosomal inversions that can be used for both An. messeae and An. daciae. In addition, a new ITS2-RFLP approach for species diagnostics was developed. Both methods were applied to characterize inversion polymorphism in populations of An. messeae and An. daciae from a single location in Western Siberia in Russia. The analysis demonstrates that cryptic species are remarkably different in their frequencies of chromosomal inversion variants. Our study supports previous observations that An. messeae has higher inversion polymorphism in all autosomes than the cryptic species An. daciae.

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Citation

Artemov, G.N.; Fedorova, V.S.; Karagodin, D.A.; Brusentsov, I.I.; Baricheva, E.M.; Sharakhov, I.V.; Gordeev, M.I.; Sharakhova, M.V. New Cytogenetic Photomap and Molecular Diagnostics for the Cryptic Species of the Malaria Mosquitoes Anopheles messeae and Anopheles daciae from Eurasia. Insects 2021, 12, 835.