Endogenous Regulation and Pharmacological Modulation of Sepsis-Induced HMGB1 Release and Action: An Updated Review
Sepsis remains a common cause of death in intensive care units, accounting for approximately 20% of total deaths worldwide. Its pathogenesis is partly attributable to dysregulated inflammatory responses to bacterial endotoxins (such as lipopolysaccharide, LPS), which stimulate innate immune cells to sequentially release early cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferons (IFNs)) and late mediators (such as high-mobility group box 1, HMGB1). Despite difficulties in translating mechanistic insights into effective therapies, an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sepsis is still urgently needed. Here, we review recent progress in elucidating the intricate mechanisms underlying the regulation of HMGB1 release and action, and propose a few potential therapeutic candidates for future clinical investigations.