Guar and locust bean gums as partial replacers of all-purpose flour in bread: an objective and sensory evaluation
The purpose of this research was to determine whether all-purpose flour could be partially replaced with locust bean gum (LBG) and guar gum, and produce an acceptable bread product.
A pilot study determined that up to 4% gum replacement for flour was feasible. All bread treatments were evaluated objectively by standing height, texture, color, and cell size. Moisture determinations were obtained for each bread variation. Sensory quality was examined by consumer testing. The amount of heat required to break the hydrogen bonds in amylopectin, indicative of bread staling, was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for all bread treatments.
Two percent LBG replacement significantly increased standing height. Firmness of bread increased with an increase in gum; the 4% guar bread was significantly firmer. Crumb color was not significantly different for any of the five bread treatments. Crust color, however, was significantly lighter for the control in comparison to the 2 and 4% guar, and 4% LBG breads. Two percent guar produced a more even cell size distribution throughout the bread crumb. For all 5 bread formulations moistures were not significantly different. Sensory evaluation determined a significant difference between the control and 4% LBG. The 4% LBG bread was preferred, although not significantly. Both gums were found to retard bread staling and 2% LBG was the most effective in lengthening the shelf life of the bread product.
Objective and sensory evaluation indicated both gums produced acceptable bread products for consumer consumption and possible use in further research.