Creation of Ovalbumin Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Bio-based materials are a viable alternative to synthetic materials for tissue engineering. Although many bio-based materials have been used, Ovalbumin (OA) has not yet been researched to create 3D structures that promote cellular responses.
Micro-porous scaffolds are a promising construct for bone tissue regeneration; therefore OA crosslinked with three different concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%) of glutaraldehyde (GA) was used in this research. After fabrication, a porous morphology was observed using SEM. Average pore sizes were found to be comparable to scaffolds previously shown to promote cellular response. A TNBS assay determined percent crosslinking in the scaffolds, however there was no significant difference in percent crosslinking despite differing GA concentrations used. Possible explanations include an excess of GA was used.
Using DSC, a glass transition temperature (Tg) was found for control indicating the scaffolds are amorphous. Average dry and wet compressive strengths were also found. As expected, differing GA concentrations had no significant effect on Tg and average compressive strengths due to an excess used. Scaffolds were mechanically tested at 37°C with no significant difference found; therefore these scaffolds can be used in the body.
It was shown through cell studies that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells significantly increased in number on the 10% and 15% scaffolds, therefore cell proliferation occurred. Because of a positive cellular response, 10% GA scaffolds were used for differentiation studies that showed an increase in osteocalcin at 21 days and alkaline phosphatase levels for scaffolds cultured for 14 days. Overall OA scaffolds have shown to be a promising 3D construct for bone tissue regeneration.