Flexural Behavior of Cold-Formed and Hot-Rolled Steel Sheet Piling Subjected to Simulated Soil Pressure

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Hot-rolled sheet piling has long-been believed to have a better flexural performance than cold-formed sheet piling based on a test conducted by Hartman Engineering twenty years ago. However, cold-formed steel can have similar strength to the hot-rolled steel This experimental program studied the flexural behavior of hot-rolled and cold-formed steel sheet pilings. This program quantified the influence of transverse stresses from soil pressures on the longitudinal flexural strength. Four cross-sections with two pairs of equivalent sectional modulus were investigated. Sheet-piling specimens were subjected to simulated soil pressure from an air bladder loaded transversely to their longitudinal axis. The span lengths were varied, while the loading area remains unchanged to examine the effect of different transverse stresses. Lateral bracings were provided at discrete locations to establish a sheet piling wall behavior and allow the development of transverse stresses. Load-pressure, load-deflection, load-strain, and moment-deflection responses were plotted to demonstrate the behavior of each specimen. The moment-deflection curves were then normalized to the corresponding yield stress from tensile coupon tests to make a meaningful comparison. The results indicate that transverse stresses influence the flexural capacity of the sheet pilings. The longer span length has less amount of transverse strains, resulting in a higher moment capacity. The hot-rolled sheet pilings have better flexural performance also because of less transverse strains.



sheet piling, flexural capacity, uniform pressure test, transverse stresses