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- Sales skills in the hospitality industry [Summary]Plunkett, Robert L.; Berger, Florence (Virginia Tech, 1984)The study examines important skills that are necessary for employees to be better in sales. Presentation of the results of these surveys is preceded by commentary from the literature and from selected hotel sales executives regarding the unique nature of sales in the hospitality industry.
- The relationship of work satisfaction, organizational commitment and retirement intention of older workers in institutional foodservicesDeMicco, Frederick Joseph (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1986)The relationship between the work attitudes, job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been demonstrated to influence turnover/retirement. This relationship is important due to changing demographic patterns in the 0.3. A food service labor shortage has potential for retarding the long-term growth of the food service industry. However, recruitment and retention of older workers could be a factor in controlling this problem. Therefore the major purpose of this research was to obtain information from current older food service employees to permit the determination of how various aspects of their jobs affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and thus intention to remain on the job. The major independent variables in this research postulated to effect the dependent variable, turnover/retirement intention included, intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction, organizational commitment, working conditions, level of pay, and financial security. The sample population consisted of older workers employed in hospital and college/university food services. Data were collected via questionnaire. A 61 % response rate ( N=243) was obtained. The results indicate that older workers demonstrate moderate levels of work satisfaction and relatively high levels of organizational commitment. However a practically meaningful relationship between work satisfaction (measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) and organizational commitment ( measured by the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire), as correlated with turnover/retirement intention was not found. Although not considered meaningful , a week but statistically significant relationship was found (r=.15, p< .02) between intrinsic satisfaction and turnover/retirement intention. Older workers in this study are generally less satisfied with the chance for advancement in their jobs, and with the pay for the amount of work done. These two items are extrinsic measures of satisfaction. Regression analysis revealed that older worker perceptions of the physical demands of the job (r=.3?), working conditions (r=.33}, and employer communication of retirement options (r=.2l) predicted 39% of the variance in the dependent variable, organizational commitment. Fifty-three percent of older workers in this study would recommend their jobs to others, and 54% of older workers state they would delay retirement past the age they now plan to retire if they could work part—time. The food service industry will see increases in the number of older workers in the near future. This research provides a foundation from which other research involving older workers can emerge.
- A productivity analysis of the clinical dietitian as a health care team member in the service sectorMeyer, Mary Kay (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1986)The major purpose of this study was to analyze the productivity of the clinical dietitian in order to develop appropriate models for measurement of productivity of the clinical dietitian. Due to the lack of research on productivity in the service sector, a modified Delphi Technique was used to identify appropriate measures of input and output for the clinical dietitian. The information gathered from the Delphi Technique was used to develop a survey designed to measure the productivity of the clinical dietitian. Two hundred eighty-three participants responded to the survey. Five measures of productivity were developed. They were: (1) hours in direct patient care/total hours worked (2) hours in indirect patient care/ total hours worked (3) hours in nonpatient care/ total hours worked (4) hours spent in direct plus indiiect patient care/total hours worked and (5) the activity level in nonproductive activities. The independent variables used in this study were: (1) patient load of the clinical dietitian (2) years of experience of the clinical dietitian (3) the allocation of time to tasks performed by the clinical dietitian (4) consultation methods used by the clinical dietitian (5) size of the hospital (6) employment status of the clinical dietitian (7) mission of the hospital (8) percent occupancy of the hospital and <9> percent of the budget generated by Medicare patients. Results of the analyses showed that dietitians were spending a variety of time in the thirty-three identified activities. They had a high activity level in performing diet histories, individual diet instructions, performing nutritional assessments, and reviewing and recording in medical records. Tasks involving low levels of activity were taking anthopometric measurements, reading professional literature and attending professional conferences. To fully investigate the relationship between the measures of productivity (dependent variables) and the independent variables stepwise multiple linear regression in the SAS statistical program was used. Analyses revealed two models appropriate for measuring the productivity. These models involved nonpatient care and nonproductive activities. The development of these models overcame the difficulty discussed in the service literature of developing direct measures of productivity of employees in the service sector.
- A validation study of service complexity measures for employees in the hotel/motel front officeBarrington, Melvin Norman (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1987)In spite of the increasing importance of the service industry, it has failed to receive much attention from researchers. This lack of attention is especially true of the hospitality segment of the service industry, and consequently, almost no attention has been paid specifically to hotels and motels. This study explores the possible reasons for poor or inadequate service by attempting to first identify the important complexity variables of service, and second to evaluate how those variables relate to employee attitudinal reactions to their job. A total of sixteen job characteristics, theorized to have a positive effect on service complexity, were empirically tested against attitudinal reactions measures. The data was collected from 212 front office employees in 25 different hotels and motels. This study modified and evaluated an instrument (The Job Diagnostic Survey) that may be used to measure both complexity and attitudinal reaction variables. The modifications included the addition of nine new complexity variables. The results concluded that the modified instrument was internally reliable at an acceptable level for new research, and that there was strong evidence to support content validity and nomological validity measures which tended to favor the original variables over the newly proposed complexity variables. Implications of this study highlight the fact that there is considerable uncertainty in the measurement of hotel/motel service operations. Therefore, additional research is necessary to more completely define the characteristics of service complexity and then to measure its effects on employee attitudes.
- Strategy, environmental scanning, and their effect upon performance: an exploratory study of the food service industryWest, Joseph John (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1988)The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of strategy and environmental scanning to performance. Porter’s (1980) strategic typology was utilized to classify foodservice firms by strategic orientation; and, an analysis of variance was performed to determine the differences in their performance. Environmental scanning engaged in by the firms was measured utilizing a modified multimethod - multitrait scale developed by Hambrick (1979). A final analysis conducted in this study was the comparison of environmental sectors scanned by high and low performing firms of each strategic group to determine their relationship with the performance variables. The three performance variables used in this study were: (a) Return on Sales, (b) Return on Assets, and (c) Growth in Unit Sales. All foodservice firms surveyed were either independent corporations or strategic business units of larger corporations whose major source of revenue was the foodservice industry. The study was nationwide with 18 national, 32 regional, and 15 local foodservice companies participating. The data was collected from fiscal year 1982 through fiscal year 1986 from both private and public sources. Strategy and environmental scanning were found to have substantial influence on both Return on Sales and Return on Assets. High performing firms in both differentiation and low cost strategies were found to engage in significantly greater amounts of environmental scanning than low performing firms in those two strategic groups. Focus strategy underperformed all other strategic groups in all performance measures.
- Environmental uncertainty, business strategy and financial performance: a study of the lodging industryDev, Chekitan S. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1988)The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived environmental uncertainty, business strategy, and financial performance in the lodging Industry. Using a contingency framework, this study investigated the match between strategy content and environmental uncertainty which, from previous research, appear to distinguish between high and low performing organizations (Miles 8 Snow, 1978; Bourgeois, 1978; Schaffer, 1986). The key question that forms the basis of this research is whether the empirical evidence supports previous theory relating to the environment, strategy, and performance relationship. The findings of this study indicate that a "match" between the state of the environment facing an organization and its business strategy is required for high performance. Hotels employing a defender strategy In a stable environment tend to perform better than hotels that employing other strategies. Similarly, hotels employing an analyzer strategy in a volatile environment tend to perform better than hotels that employing other strategies. Furthermore, irrespective of the environment faced, smaller hotels do better than larger hotels in terms of profit, while larger properties tend to fare better in terms of revenue. From an Industry application perspective, this study provides the strategy planner in the lodging industry with empirical information relating to: 1. A means to assess the state of the business environment perceived by individual unit general managers, 2. A repertoire of business strategies that emphasize different competitive postures, and 3. A "decision rule" to apply in appropriately matching their strategy to an environmental state for maximal performance outcome reflected in revenues and earnings. The results obtained provide an invaluable planning and analysis tool for all levels of management involved in charting a firm’s future.
- The Basics of Yield ManagementKimes, Sheryl E. (Cornell University Press, 1989-11)Yield-management systems have boosted revenue at many properties, but these electronic tools are not always compatible with the operating atmosphere of a hotel. If you want to introduce yield management at your property, you may need to make some changes first.
- An exploratory study of human resource management and business strategy in multiunit restaurant firmsIshak, Nor K. (Virginia Tech, 1990-03-24)The objectives of this study is two-fold: First, is to explore the nature of human resource management (HRM) functional activities in the multiunit restaurant firms, focusing at the unit restaurant managers level. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between the firm's business strategy and its HRM practices. This study addresses the critical need for empirical research that examines HRM practices in restaurant firms, and presents a possible solution to the acute management shortage problem in the industry. Data are collected from 14 publicly-traded multiunit restaurant firms. A case study approach is taken to provide an in-depth examination of each firm. Primary data are derived via interviews and structured mailed questionnaires. Information is also collected through published sources. The results indicate that restaurant firms do have similar HRM functional activities' emphasis. Some of those activities were found to support the firm's business strategy. An analysis of the qualitative data indicate that although the HRM executives are involved in the firms' strategic planning process, the current acute labor shortage and high turnover problems demand them to focus on administrative issues instead. The study provides exploratory evidence for the effectiveness of a positive link between HRM practices and business strategy. It has contributed to a deeper understanding of the issues and functions of the HRM divisions in the multiunit restaurant firms.
- Consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in tourism as related to destination image perceptionChon, Kye-Sung (Virginia Tech, 1990-12-06)The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between travel destination image and the tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Using the evaluative congruity theory framework, this study focused on the role of destination images in tourism with regard to consumer satisfaction/ dissatisfaction (CS/D) from the stand point of: (1) the functional congruency between the tourist's expectations and his/her perceptions of specific utilitarian (functional) attributes of a destination; (2) the value-expressive (symbolic) congruency between the tourist'S self concept and the destination's personality image; and (3) the degree of emotional involvement the traveler associates with travel purchases and its influence on his/her satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. The key findings of this study indicate that CS/D is related to both functional and symbolic congruity. With regard to the relative strength of the functional congruity and the symbolic congruity in explaining CS/D in tourism, the functional congruity was found to explain CS/D better than the symbolic congruity. It was also found that the tourist's emotional involvement in the travel purchase process affects his/her satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the destination.
- An empirical analysis of the strategic implications of type of entrepreneur in the restaurant industryElwood, Clare M. (Virginia Tech, 1991-01-15)The primary purpose of this study was to empirically test Smith's (1967) typology of entrepreneurial type and Miles and Snow's (1978) typology of strategy in the restaurant industry, and then to establish whether or not there is a relationship between type of entrepreneur and type of strategy. A total of 1,000 entrepreneurs were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. One hundred and thirty three entrepreneurs participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 14.76%. From the basis of the objectives and research questions, four hypotheses were derived to identify the presence of Smith's (1967) typology of entrepreneurs (craftsman and opportunistic entrepreneurs), Miles and Snow's (1978) typology of strategy (defenders, prospectors, analyzers and reactors), and the relationship between type of entrepreneur and type of strategy in the restaurant industry. The findings of the hypotheses tests indicated that Smith's two entrepreneurial types may not be mutually exclusive and that there is probably a third group of entrepreneurs, combining characteristics from both Smith's craftsman and opportunistic types. Support was found for Miles and Snow's four generic strategies of defender, prospector, analyzer and reactor. Through the use of discriminant analysis, it was possible to demonstrate a relationship between type of entrepreneur and type of strategy. Furthermore, two moderating variables were found to also be associated with the realationship between type of entrepreneur.
- An exploratory study of family dining attitudes toward full service restaurant product/service attributesLogan, Theresa Castillo (Virginia Tech, 1991-05-15)Families dining out with children are becoming an important customer segment revealing a personal preference for convenience, timely service, menu variety, and child entertainment. According to united states industry figures, families dining out with children constitute twenty percent of estimated commercial restaurant sales. Although the restaurant industry is segmenting customer markets for the 1990's, most restaurateurs still define customer markets using instinct versus market segmentation research. By targeting families with children, the researcher investigated family dining attitudes according to gender, income, ages of children in the family unit, and frequency of dining out. The research was an exploratory investigation, identifying family dining attitudes toward full service restaurant products and services. Survey data was collected and analyzed, using a convenience sample of families in Fairfax County, Virginia.
- Employee perceptions of performance appraisal acceptability in a merit pay settingGibson, Timothy Paul (Virginia Tech, 1991-07-05)The purpose of this study was to audit employee perceptions of the Sentara Health System performance appraisal system in a merit pay setting. To accomplish this, the study investigated variables having a positive relationship on employee perception of performance appraisal acceptability, fairness and accuracy. The study had three objectives: (1) integrate the current body of literature to develop variables that adequately describe employee perception of appraisal systems, (2) integrate these variables into several hypotheses that are consistent with current literature, and (3) test the hypotheses using Pearson product moment correlations. Nine variables hypothesized as depicting aspects of employee perceptions were conceptualized, and multiple indicators were developed for each variable. A questionnaire containing these items was randomly distributed to 300 employees throughout a large health care system. Results indicate that performance appraisal acceptability, fairness and accuracy had a positive relationship with supervisor trust, supervisor knowledge of performance, interview information, interview atmosphere, performance standard acceptability, participation in development, performance reward link and merit pay acceptability. All the hypotheses had significant positive correlations (≤ï»¿ï»¿ï»¿ï»¿.01). These findings were discussed in terms of the study limitations, suggested future research and implications for the organization studied, as well as other organizations with merit pay programs.
- An exploratory analysis of the restaurant dining patterns of older adultsLogsdon, Kathleen Petty (Virginia Tech, 1991-12-05)The main objective of this study was to describe the restaurant dining patterns of a representative random sample of adults 65 years of age and older and to evaluate the impact that their health concerns and special diets have on their restaurant dining patterns. In addition, the specific features of food service products and services that are important to aged individuals when selecting a restaurant were examined. The phrase 'dining patterns' refers to both food intake (the specific foods consumed) and individual consumption patterns (time, frequency, location of meals, and dining companions). Four different measures were used to quantify food intake: (1) entree items most often selected; (2) preferred method of preparation; (3) frequency of dessert purchases; and (4) type of dessert most often selected. Consumption patterns were quantified as: (1) type of restaurant patronized for each meal period; (2) frequency of restaurant visits per meal period; (3) dollar value of purchases per meal period; and (4) restaurant dining companions. A mail survey of 1000 adults age 65 and older, was conducted in order to obtain information about the restaurant menu selections and consumption patterns of aged individuals living in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
- A case study investigation of strategy implementation in three multi-unit restaurant firmsSchmelzer, Claire D. (Virginia Tech, 1992)The primary objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of the process of strategy implementation in multi-unit restaurant firms. A model comprised of five context variables and five process variables was developed on the basis of a review of the theoretical literature about the restaurant industry, strategy implementation, and organization theory. Qualitative research methods, specifically case study design, concept mapping, and matrix analysis were used to collect and analyze the data from three firms. The findings from this investigation included 14 propositions that explain the associations between the variables and other factors found to affect implementation in the three companies, which were investigated. A new framework was developed from the propositions that further delineates the strategy implementation process. The framework introduces four additional variables found to be involved in the implementation process: life cycle stage of the firm, size and geographic dispersion of the firm, manager demographics, and training. Three primary context variables, organizational culture, organizational structure, and perceived environmental uncertainty; and three primary process variables, information processing, planning and control, and resource allocation were found to have a major effect on strategy implementation. The results obtained provide a basis for further study of the implementation process.
- A study of the extent of brand loyalty exhibited by business travellers towards the lodging productDavis, Nigel Roger John (Virginia Tech, 1992-02-05)Brand loyalty measurement is important because of the extensive use of branding in the lodging industry during recent years. As the industry has matured, segmentation strategies have been adopted by lodging companies. Brands were supposed to protect market share,build brand loyalty, and differentiate the product (Withiam 1985).
- Development of a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in AsiaKim, Chol Yong (Virginia Tech, 1992-04-05)The primary/objective of this study was to develop a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia. To accomplish the objective, key factors having an impact upon these hotel chains were identified using the Delphi Technique. This study was conducted with participation of multinational hotel chain executives and general managers, trade association executives, government tourism officials, hospitality management educators, and industry lawyers. Five Asian countries including Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand were selected as a sample for newly industrialized countries. Key factors in the political environment were identified under four categories: law and regulation, administrative, judicial, and lobbying, based on the classification scheme of the Trends Database developed by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and state University. A professional panel of 17 members identified 93 key factors for each category in the first round of Delphi. In the second round panel members rated the level of influence of these identified factors using a five point Likert-type scale (5 = very influential, 1 = not influential), and reexamined their ratings in the final round to reach an agreement. All key factors receiving a total of two-thirds of the panel members' votes in the very influential, moderately influential and average influence categories were included in the framework. Finally, a total of 58 factors were agreed to be included in the framework: 26 in the law and regulation category, 14 in administrative, 10 in judicial, and 8 in lobbying categories.
- An exploratory study of franchisee turnover and its relationship with franchisee satisfactionChiu, Esther Y. (Virginia Tech, 1992-05-15)The purpose of this study is to investigate franchisee turnover practice and empirically test the relationship between franchisee satisfaction and turnover behavior. A total of 402 franchisees of a quick service franchise system were surveyed by using two sets of structured questionnaires. Sixty-seven current and 24 terminated franchisee participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 29.8%. Based on the objective and research questions, two hypotheses were established and tested. The testing of the hypotheses indicated a significant difference between the satisfaction of terminated and current franchisees on service support, social interaction, and general satisfaction. Also, there is a relationship between franchisee’s satisfaction and his or her future intention. Through factor analysis two critical factors were identified closely related to the satisfaction and future intention of current and terminated franchisees.
- Decision making strategy in the selection of cook-chill production in hospital foodservicesGreen, Claudia G. (Virginia Tech, 1992-06-15)The primary purpose of this study was to develop and test a model for the process of making the decision to select/not select cook-chill for hospital food services. A second purpose was to determine the nature of the decision strategy, analytical versus intuitive, most predictive of satisfaction with cook-chill. A generic decision model was developed based on an extensive review of literature on decision making. Due to the lack of research on food service systems, a modified Delphi technique was used to identify 1) the factors critical in the process of making the decision to select/not select cook-chill and 2) the characteristics of a successful hospital cook-chill operation. The information gathered from the Delphi technique was used to develop a questionnaire which would measure the applicability of the generic model to the decision to select/not select cook -chill food production. The generic model was composed of five decision components and one satisfaction component. Using the model as a framework, a questionnaire was developed to test the relationships between the components of the model. Correlations between these components revealed that the use of the model was significantly related with satisfaction with the decision to select/not select cook-chill. A "Checklist for the Process of Making the Decision to SelectINot Select Cookchill Food Production for Hospital Foodservices" was developed using the model and questionnaire as frameworks. The Checklist consists of 136 questions: 101 questions measuring the decision process and 35 questions measuring satisfaction with the decision. For the purposes of this study, analytical decision making was defined as a process where objective, as opposed to subjective information, was available and was used in the process of making the decision. The Checklist consisted of questions to which there was a "yes" or "no" response. The higher the number of "yes" responses on the decision component questions, the more analytical the decision process and the higher the correlation with satisfaction. It was statistically determined that 37 "yes" responses resulted in satisfaction with the decision process. The lower the number of "yes" responses on the decision component questions, the more intuitive the decision process and the lower the correlation with satisfaction. The results of this study are significant in that an extensive review of literature between 1950 and 1990 showed that there was little empirically based research on foodservice systems. The existing research prior to this study did not provide enough information to develop a model for the process of making the decision to select/not select cook-chill production for any foodservice operation. The model developed and tested in this research is generic in nature and should apply equally well in a variety of types of foodservices. It may be necessary to make minor adaptations to the Checklist to address the unique nature of various types of foodservices such as schools, college/universities, military, prisons, hotels, and restaurants.
- Cost of capital: a practical model incorporated with risk assessment for hotel investments in the middle-price and economy segmentsZeng, Yee (Virginia Tech, 1993)Hotel investments, which have far-reaching impact on hotel companies' long term financial health, will continue to be the primary mode for hotel companies' survival and growth. However, top management has been facing a changing industry and investment community to which they are required to adapt. Consequently, the old fashioned gut-feeling types of decision making are no longer appropriate for sound hotel investments. It is the primary objective of this study to develop a model for hotel investment risk assessment and appropriate cost of capital estimation in the middle-price and economy hotel segments for the investment's capital budgeting purposes. The hotel investment risk assessment and cost of capital estimation model research was conducted using the focus group interview, the Delphi Technique, and the case study. As exploratory research, the focus group interview was conducted with the participation of hotel executives and general managers, hotel owners, and bank lenders from the Virginia area. Key investment risk factors were identified from the opinions of this panel, which represented different perspectives and needs. The summary findings laid out the foundation of the Delphi Technique survey_ The Delphi survey was conducted among hotel general managers, hotel executives, and hotel owners within three hotel chains in Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. They consisted of a professional panel of 19 members. The first task accomplished by the panel was to further validate the key risk factor profile developed by the focus group interview. The second task was to rate the level of influence of the identified factors using a five point likert-type scale (5=very influential, 1 = little influential). Three rounds of the survey allowed the panel members to achieve a consensus on the issues. A total of 36 hotel key investment risk factors in the middle-priced and economy segments were agreed to be included in the investment risk assessment framework. In addition, a ranking of all factors was produced based on each factor's importance and influence level. All the factors received a higher than average (rank scale 3) ranking. The empirical finding provided a valuable framework for the subjective risk assessment in the cost of capital estimation model.
- A study of situational variables in an organizational marketing scenarioClark, J. Dana (Virginia Tech, 1993-01-01)This study examined whether situational variables influence members of the buying center when deriving an evoked set in an organizational buying scenario. Buyclass, risk, and power were the focus of the study. This study examined the process organizations go through when deriving evoked sets and the role situational variables played in that process. This process was examined within the context of organizational buying scenarios. The organizational buying process is different from the consumer buying process. The organizational buying process includes a series of incremental steps. A decision or decisions are made at each step. The first step in the decision process is the recognition of a problem and the formulation of a set of potential solutions. This initial group of solutions is an evoked set. Organizational buying decisions are made by a collection of people within the organization. These individuals interact through the phases of the purchase process making the necessary decisions. This group is called a buying center. The buying center is influenced throughout the buying process by a number of variables. This study focused on three situational variables: buyclass, risk, and power. However, other variables were revealed. A proposed model for understanding the organizational buying process was constructed and presented in the literature review section (Chapter Two). This model incorporated situational variables in the overall buying process. While the study was conducted within the context of the proposed model, the proposed model was not tested. The proposed model may provide context for future studies in the area of organizational marketing. The research questions and propositions suggested in Chapter One were examined within the context of the hospitality industry. Specifically, this dissertation has studied how situational variables influenced buying centers within associations while the buying centers were formulating evoked sets while searching for an annual convention site. The sample for the study was drawn from associations headquartered in Washington, D.C.