Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Iranian Cannabis Germplasm
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Cannabis sativa has a complex history reflected in both selection on naturally occurring compounds and historical trade routes among humans. Iran is a rich resource of natural populationswhich hold the promise to characterize historical patterns of population structure and genetic diversity within Cannabis. Recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased our ability to produce information to the point that it is now feasible to inexpensively obtain population level genotype information at a large scale. In the present investigation, we have explored the use of Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) in Iranian cannabis. We genotyped 98 cannabis samples 36 from Iranian locations and 26 accessions from two germplasm collections. In total, 24,710 high-quality Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Clustering analysis by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified two genetic clusters among Iranian populations and fineSTRUCTURE analysis identified 19 populations with some geographic partitioning. We defined Iranian cannabis in two main groups using the results of the PCA and discovered some strong signal to define some locations as population according to fineSTRUCTURE analyses. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively moderate level of variation among Iranian cannabis.