High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity

Abstract

Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 104 colony-formingunits LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 105 focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4–5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens.

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Keywords
lactobacillus-rhamnosus gg, gnotobiotic pig model, randomized controlled-trial, antibody-responses, vaccine, children, piglets, mucosal, cells, rats
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